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ATAN2(3)                   Library Functions Manual                   ATAN2(3)

     atan2, atan2f, atan2l - arc tangent function of two variables

     Math Library (libm, -lm)

     #include <math.h>

     atan2(double y, double x);

     atan2f(float y, float x);

     long double
     atan2l(long double y, long double x);

     The atan2(), atan2f(), and atan2l() functions compute the principal value
     of the arc tangent of y/x, using the signs of both arguments to determine
     the quadrant of the return value.

     The atan2() function, if successful, returns the arc tangent of y/x in
     the range [-pi, +pi] radians.  If both x and y are zero, the global
     variable errno is set to EDOM.  On the VAX:

     atan2(y, x) :=       atan(y/x)                       if x > 0,
                          sign(y)*(pi - atan(|y/x|))      if x < 0,
                          0                               if x = y = 0, or
                          sign(y)*pi/2                    if x = 0 y.

     The function atan2() defines "if x > 0," atan2(0, 0) = 0 on a VAX despite
     that previously atan2(0, 0) may have generated an error message.  The
     reasons for assigning a value to atan2(0, 0) are these:

           1.   Programs that test arguments to avoid computing atan2(0, 0)
                must be indifferent to its value.  Programs that require it to
                be invalid are vulnerable to diverse reactions to that
                invalidity on diverse computer systems.

           2.   The atan2() function is used mostly to convert from
                rectangular (x,y) to polar (r,theta) coordinates that must
                satisfy x = r*cos theta and y = r*sin theta.  These equations
                are satisfied when (x=0,y=0) is mapped to (r=0,theta=0) on a
                VAX.  In general, conversions to polar coordinates should be
                computed thus:

                      r    := hypot(x,y);  ... := sqrt(x*x+y*y)
                      theta     := atan2(y,x).

           3.   The foregoing formulas need not be altered to cope in a
                reasonable way with signed zeros and infinities on a machine
                that conforms to IEEE 754; the versions of hypot(3) and
                atan2() provided for such a machine are designed to handle all
                cases.  That is why atan2(+-0, -0) = +-pi for instance.  In
                general the formulas above are equivalent to these:

                      r := sqrt(x*x+y*y); if r = 0 then x := copysign(1,x);

     acos(3), asin(3), atan(3), cos(3), cosh(3), math(3), sin(3), sinh(3),
     tan(3), tanh(3)

     The atan2() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 ("ISO C99").

NetBSD 10.99                   January 29, 2013                   NetBSD 10.99