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CONDVAR(9) Kernel Developer's Manual CONDVAR(9) NAME cv, condvar, cv_init, cv_destroy, cv_wait, cv_wait_sig, cv_timedwait, cv_timedwait_sig, cv_signal, cv_broadcast, cv_has_waiters - condition variables SYNOPSIS #include <sys/condvar.h> void cv_init(kcondvar_t *cv, const char *wmesg); void cv_destroy(kcondvar_t *cv); void cv_wait(kcondvar_t *cv, kmutex_t *mtx); int cv_wait_sig(kcondvar_t *cv, kmutex_t *mtx); int cv_timedwait(kcondvar_t *cv, kmutex_t *mtx, int ticks); int cv_timedwait_sig(kcondvar_t *cv, kmutex_t *mtx, int ticks); void cv_signal(kcondvar_t *cv); void cv_broadcast(kcondvar_t *cv); bool cv_has_waiters(kcondvar_t *cv); options DIAGNOSTIC options LOCKDEBUG DESCRIPTION Condition variables (CVs) are used in the kernel to synchronize access to resources that are limited (for example, memory) and to wait for pending I/O operations to complete. The kcondvar_t type provides storage for the CV object. This should be treated as an opaque object and not examined directly by consumers. OPTIONS options DIAGNOSTIC Kernels compiled with the DIAGNOSTIC option perform basic sanity checks on CV operations. options LOCKDEBUG Kernels compiled with the LOCKDEBUG option perform potentially CPU intensive sanity checks on CV operations. FUNCTIONS cv_init(cv, wmesg) Initialize a CV for use. No other operations can be performed on the CV until it has been initialized. The wmesg argument specifies a string of no more than 8 characters that describes the resource or condition associated with the CV. The kernel does not use this argument directly but makes it available for utilities such as ps(1) to display. cv_destroy(cv) Release resources used by a CV. The CV must not be in use when it is destroyed, and must not be used afterwards. cv_wait(cv, mtx) Cause the current LWP to wait non-interruptably for access to a resource, or for an I/O operation to complete. The LWP will resume execution when awoken by another thread using cv_signal() or cv_broadcast(). mtx specifies a kernel mutex to be used as an interlock, and must be held by the calling LWP on entry to cv_wait(). It will be released once the LWP has prepared to sleep, and will be reacquired before cv_wait() returns. A small window exists between testing for availability of a resource and waiting for the resource with cv_wait(), in which the resource may become available again. The interlock is used to guarantee that the resource will not be signalled as available until the calling LWP has begun to wait for it. Non-interruptable waits have the potential to deadlock the system, and so must be kept short (typically, under one second). cv_wait_sig(cv, mtx) As per cv_wait(), but causes the current LWP to wait interruptably. If the LWP receives a signal, or is interrupted by another condition such as its containing process exiting, the wait is ended early and an error code returned. If cv_wait_sig() returns as a result of a signal, the return value is ERESTART if the signal has the SA_RESTART property. If awoken normally, the value is zero, and EINTR under all other conditions. cv_timedwait(cv, mtx, ticks) As per cv_wait(), but will return early if a timeout specified by the ticks argument expires. ticks is an architecture and system dependent value related to the number of clock interrupts per second. See hz(9) for details. The mstohz(9) macro can be used to convert a timeout expressed in milliseconds to one suitable for cv_timedwait(). If the ticks argument is zero, cv_timedwait() behaves exactly like cv_wait(). If the timeout expires before the LWP is awoken, the return value is EWOULDBLOCK. If awoken normally, the return value is zero. cv_timedwait_sig(cv, mtx, ticks) As per cv_wait_sig(), but also accepts a timeout value and will return EWOULDBLOCK if the timeout expires. cv_signal(cv) Awaken one LWP (potentially among many) that is waiting on the specified condition variable. The mutex passed to the wait function (mtx) must also be held when calling cv_signal(). (Note that cv_signal() is erroneously named in that it does not send a signal in the traditional sense to LWPs waiting on a CV.) cv_broadcast(cv) Awaken all LWPs waiting on the specified condition variable. The mutex passed to the wait function (mtx) must also be held when calling cv_broadcast(). cv_has_waiters(cv) Return true if one or more LWPs are waiting on the specified condition variable. cv_has_waiters() cannot test reliably for interruptable waits. It should only be used to test for non-interruptable waits made using cv_wait(). cv_has_waiters() should only be used when making diagnostic assertions, and must be called while holding the interlocking mutex passed to cv_wait(). EXAMPLES Consuming a resource: /* * Lock the resource. Its mutex will also serve as the * interlock. */ mutex_enter(&res->mutex); /* * Wait for the resource to become available. */ while (res->state == BUSY) cv_wait(&res->condvar, &res->mutex); /* * It's now available to us. Take ownership of the * resource, and consume it. */ res->state = BUSY; mutex_exit(&res->mutex); consume(res); Releasing a resource for the next consumer to use: mutex_enter(&res->mutex); res->state = IDLE; cv_signal(&res->condvar); mutex_exit(&res->mutex); CODE REFERENCES The core of the CV implementation is in sys/kern/kern_condvar.c. The header file sys/sys/condvar.h describes the public interface. SEE ALSO sigaction(2), errno(9), mb(9), mstohz(9), mutex(9), rwlock(9) Jim Mauro and Richard McDougall, Solaris Internals: Core Kernel Architecture, Prentice Hall, 2001, ISBN 0-13-022496-0. HISTORY The CV primitives first appeared in NetBSD 5.0. NetBSD 8.0 June 4, 2008 NetBSD 8.0