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dtrace(1)               System Administration Commands               dtrace(1)



NAME
       dtrace - DTrace dynamic tracing compiler and tracing utility

SYNOPSIS
       dtrace [-32 | -64] [-aACeFGHhlqSvVwZ] [-b bufsz] [-c cmd]
           [-D name [=value]] [-I path] [-L path] [-o output]
           [-s script] [-U name] [-x arg [=val]]
           [-X a | c | s | t] [-p pid]
           [-P provider [[predicate] action]]
           [-m [provider:] module [[predicate] action]]
           [-f [[provider:] module:] function [[predicate] action]]
           [-n [[[provider:] module:] function:] name [[predicate] action]]
           [-i probe-id [[predicate] action]]


DESCRIPTION
       DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework for the Solaris
       Operating System. DTrace provides a powerful infrastructure that
       permits administrators, developers, and service personnel to concisely
       answer arbitrary questions about the behavior of the operating system
       and user programs.


       The Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide describes how to use DTrace to
       observe, debug, and tune system behavior. Refer to this book for a
       detailed description of DTrace features, including the bundled DTrace
       observability tools, instrumentation providers, and the D programming
       language.


       The dtrace command provides a generic interface to the essential
       services provided by the DTrace facility, including:

           o      Options that list the set of probes and providers currently
                  published by DTrace

           o      Options that enable probes directly using any of the probe
                  description specifiers (provider, module, function, name)

           o      Options that run the D compiler and compile one or more D
                  program files or programs written directly on the command
                  line

           o      Options that generate anonymous tracing programs

           o      Options that generate program stability reports

           o      Options that modify DTrace tracing and buffering behavior
                  and enable additional D compiler features


       You can use dtrace to create D scripts by using it in a #! declaration
       to create an interpreter file. You can also use dtrace to attempt to
       compile D programs and determine their properties without actually
       enabling tracing using the -e option. See OPTIONS. See the Solaris
       Dynamic Tracing Guide for detailed examples of how to use the dtrace
       utility to perform these tasks.

OPTIONS
       The arguments accepted by the -P, -m, -f, -n, and -i options can
       include an optional D language predicate enclosed in slashes // and
       optional D language action statement list enclosed in braces {}. D
       program code specified on the command line must be appropriately quoted
       to avoid interpretation of meta-characters by the shell.


       The following options are supported:

       -32 | -64

           The D compiler produces programs using the native data model of the
           operating system kernel. You can use the isainfo -b command to
           determine the current operating system data model.  If the -32
           option is specified, dtrace forces the D compiler to compile a D
           program using the 32-bit data model. If the -64 option is
           specified, dtrace forces the D compiler to compile a D program
           using the 64-bit data model. These options are typically not
           required as dtrace selects the native data model as the default.
           The data model affects the sizes of integer types and other
           language properties. D programs compiled for either data model can
           be executed on both 32-bit and 64-bit kernels. The -32 and -64
           options also determine the ELF file format (ELF32 or ELF64)
           produced by the -G option.


       -a

           Claim anonymous tracing state and display the traced data. You can
           combine the -a option with the -e option to force dtrace to exit
           immediately after consuming the anonymous tracing state rather than
           continuing to wait for new data. See the Solaris Dynamic Tracing
           Guide for more information about anonymous tracing.


       -A

           Generate driver.conf(4) directives for anonymous tracing. This
           option constructs a set of dtrace(7D) configuration file directives
           to enable the specified probes for anonymous tracing and then
           exits. By default, dtrace attempts to store the directives to the
           file /kernel/drv/dtrace.conf. You can modify this behavior if you
           use the -o option to specify an alternate output file.


       -b bufsz

           Set principal trace buffer size (bufsz). The trace buffer size can
           include any of the size suffixes k, m, g, or t.  If the buffer
           space cannot be allocated, dtrace attempts to reduce the buffer
           size or exit depending on the setting of the bufresize property.


       -c cmd

           Run the specified command cmd and exit upon its completion. If more
           than one -c option is present on the command line, dtrace exits
           when all commands have exited, reporting the exit status for each
           child process as it terminates. The process-ID of the first command
           is made available to any D programs specified on the command line
           or using the -s option through the $target macro variable. Refer to
           the Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide for more information on macro
           variables.


       -C

           Run the C preprocessor cpp(1) over D programs before compiling
           them. You can pass options to the C preprocessor using the -D, -U,
           -I, and -H options. You can select the degree of C standard
           conformance if you use the -X option. For a description of the set
           of tokens defined by the D compiler when invoking the C
           preprocessor, see -X.


       -D name [=value]

           Define name when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the -C option). If
           you specify the equals sign (=) and additional value, the name is
           assigned the corresponding value. This option passes the -D option
           to each cpp invocation.


       -e

           Exit after compiling any requests and consuming anonymous tracing
           state (-a option) but prior to enabling any probes. You can combine
           this option with the -a option to print anonymous tracing data and
           exit. You can also combine this option with D compiler options.
           This combination verifies that the programs compile without
           actually executing them and enabling the corresponding
           instrumentation.


       -f[[provider:]module:]function[[predicate]action]]

           Specify function name to trace or list (-l option). The
           corresponding argument can include any of the probe description
           forms provider:module:function, module:function, or function.
           Unspecified probe description fields are left blank and match any
           probes regardless of the values in those fields. If no qualifiers
           other than function are specified in the description, all probes
           with the corresponding function are matched.  The -f argument can
           be suffixed with an optional D probe clause. You can specify more
           than one -f option on the command line at a time.


       -F

           Coalesce trace output by identifying function entry and return.
           Function entry probe reports are indented and their output is
           prefixed with ->. Function return probe reports are unindented and
           their output is prefixed with <-. System call entry probe reports
           are indented and their output is prefixed with =>. System call
           return probe reports are unindented and their output is prefixed
           with <=.


       -G

           Generate an ELF file containing an embedded DTrace program. The
           DTrace probes specified in the program are saved inside of a
           relocatable ELF object which can be linked into another program. If
           the -o option is present, the ELF file is saved using the pathname
           specified as the argument for this operand. If the -o option is not
           present and the DTrace program is contained with a file whose name
           is filename.d, then the ELF file is saved using the name
           filename.o.  Otherwise the ELF file is saved using the name d.out.


       -H

           Print the pathnames of included files when invoking cpp(1) (enabled
           using the -C option). This option passes the -H option to each cpp
           invocation, causing it to display the list of pathnames, one for
           each line, to stderr.


       -h

           Generate a header file containing macros that correspond to probes
           in the specified provider definitions. This option should be used
           to generate a header file that is included by other source files
           for later use with the -G option. If the -o option is present, the
           header file is saved using the pathname specified as the argument
           for that option. If the -o option is not present and the DTrace
           program is contained with a file whose name is filename.d, then the
           header file is saved using the name filename.h.


       -i probe-id[[predicate] action]

           Specify probe identifier (probe-id) to trace or list (-l option).
           You can specify probe IDs using decimal integers as shown by dtrace
           -l. The -i argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe
           clause. You can specify more than one -i option at a time.


       -I path

           Add the specified directory path to the search path for #include
           files when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the -C option). This
           option passes the -I option to each cpp invocation. The specified
           path is inserted into the search path ahead of the default
           directory list.


       -L path

           Add the specified directory path to the search path for DTrace
           libraries. DTrace libraries are used to contain common definitions
           that can be used when writing D programs. The specified path is
           added after the default library search path.


       -l

           List probes instead of enabling them. If the -l option is
           specified, dtrace produces a report of the probes matching the
           descriptions given using the -P, -m, -f, -n, -i, and -s options. If
           none of these options are specified, this option lists all probes.


       -m [[provider:] module: [[predicate] action]]

           Specify module name to trace or list (-l option). The corresponding
           argument can include any of the probe description forms
           provider:module or module. Unspecified probe description fields are
           left blank and match any probes regardless of the values in those
           fields. If no qualifiers other than module are specified in the
           description, all probes with a corresponding module are matched.
           The -m argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe clause.
           More than one -m option can be specified on the command line at a
           time.


       -n [[[provider:] module:] function:] name [[predicate] action]

           Specify probe name to trace or list (-l option). The corresponding
           argument can include any of the probe description forms
           provider:module:function:name, module:function:name, function:name,
           or name.  Unspecified probe description fields are left blank and
           match any probes regardless of the values in those fields. If no
           qualifiers other than name are specified in the description, all
           probes with a corresponding name are matched. The -n argument can
           be suffixed with an optional D probe clause. More than one -n
           option can be specified on the command line at a time.


       -o output

           Specify the output file for the -A , -G, and -l options, or for the
           traced data itself. If the -A option is present and -o is not
           present, the default output file is /kernel/drv/dtrace.conf. If the
           -G option is present and the -s option's argument is of the form
           filename.d and -o is not present, the default output file is
           filename.o.  Otherwise the default output file is d.out.


       -p pid

           Grab the specified process-ID pid, cache its symbol tables, and
           exit upon its completion. If more than one -p option is present on
           the command line, dtrace exits when all commands have exited,
           reporting the exit status for each process as it terminates. The
           first process-ID is made available to any D programs specified on
           the command line or using the -s option through the $target macro
           variable. Refer to the Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide for more
           information on macro variables.


       -P provider [[predicate] action]

           Specify provider name to trace or list (-l option). The remaining
           probe description fields module, function, and name are left blank
           and match any probes regardless of the values in those fields. The
           -P argument can be suffixed with an optional D probe clause. You
           can specify more than one -P option on the command line at a time.


       -q

           Set quiet mode. dtrace suppresses messages such as the number of
           probes matched by the specified options and D programs and does not
           print column headers, the CPU ID, the probe ID, or insert newlines
           into the output. Only data traced and formatted by D program
           statements such as trace() and printf() is displayed to stdout.


       -s

           Compile the specified D program source file. If the -e option is
           present, the program is compiled but instrumentation is not
           enabled. If the -l option is present, the program is compiled and
           the set of probes matched by it is listed, but instrumentation is
           not enabled. If none of -e, -l, -G, or -A are present, the
           instrumentation specified by the D program is enabled and tracing
           begins.


       -S

           Show D compiler intermediate code. The D compiler produces a report
           of the intermediate code generated for each D program to stderr.


       -U name

           Undefine the specified name when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the
           -C option). This option passes the -U option to each cpp
           invocation.


       -v

           Set verbose mode. If the -v option is specified, dtrace produces a
           program stability report showing the minimum interface stability
           and dependency level for the specified D programs. DTrace stability
           levels are explained in further detail in the Solaris Dynamic
           Tracing Guide.


       -V

           Report the highest D programming interface version supported by
           dtrace. The version information is printed to stdout and the dtrace
           command exits. Refer to the Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide for more
           information about DTrace versioning features.


       -w

           Permit destructive actions in D programs specified using the -s,
           -P, -m, -f, -n, or -i options. If the -w option is not specified,
           dtrace does not permit the compilation or enabling of a D program
           that contains destructive actions.


       -x arg [=val]

           Enable or modify a DTrace runtime option or D compiler option. The
           list of options is found in the Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide.
           Boolean options are enabled by specifying their name. Options with
           values are set by separating the option name and value with an
           equals sign (=).


       -X a | c | s | t

           Specify the degree of conformance to the ISO C standard that should
           be selected when invoking cpp(1) (enabled using the -C option).
           The -X option argument affects the value and presence of the
           __STDC__ macro depending upon the value of the argument letter.

           The -X option supports the following arguments:

           a
                Default. ISO C plus K&R compatibility extensions, with
                semantic changes required by ISO C. This is the default mode
                if -X is not specified. The predefined macro __STDC__ has a
                value of 0 when cpp is invoked in conjunction with the -Xa
                option.


           c
                Conformance. Strictly conformant ISO C, without K&R C
                compatibility extensions. The predefined macro __STDC__ has a
                value of 1 when cpp is invoked in conjunction with the -Xc
                option.


           s
                K&R C only. The macro __STDC__ is not defined when cpp is
                invoked in conjunction with the -Xs option.


           t
                Transition. ISO C plus K&R C compatibility extensions, without
                semantic changes required by ISO C. The predefined macro
                __STDC__ has a value of 0 when cpp is invoked in conjunction
                with the -Xt option.

           As the -X option only affects how the D compiler invokes the C
           preprocessor, the -Xa and -Xt options are equivalent from the
           perspective of D and both are provided only to ease re-use of
           settings from a C build environment.

           Regardless of the -X mode, the following additional C preprocessor
           definitions are always specified and valid in all modes:

               o      __sun

               o      __unix

               o      __SVR4

               o      __sparc (on SPARC systems only)

               o      __sparcv9 (on SPARC systems only when 64-bit programs
                      are compiled)

               o      __i386 (on x86 systems only when 32-bit programs are
                      compiled)

               o      __amd64 (on x86 systems only when 64-bit programs are
                      compiled)

               o      __`uname -s`_`uname -r` (for example, __SunOS_5_10)

               o      __SUNW_D=1

               o      __SUNW_D_VERSION=0xMMmmmuuu

                      Where MM is the major release value in hexadecimal, mmm
                      is the minor release value in hexadecimal, and uuu is
                      the micro release value in hexadecimal. Refer to the
                      Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide for more information about
                      DTrace versioning.


       -Z

           Permit probe descriptions that match zero probes. If the -Z option
           is not specified, dtrace reports an error and exits if any probe
           descriptions specified in D program files (-s option) or on the
           command line (-P, -m, -f, -n, or -i options) contain descriptions
           that do not match any known probes.


OPERANDS
       You can specify zero or more additional arguments on the dtrace command
       line to define a set of macro variables ($1, $2, and so forth). The
       additional arguments can be used in D programs specified using the -s
       option or on the command line. The use of macro variables is described
       further in the Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0
            Successful completion.

            For D program requests, an exit status of 0 indicates that
            programs were successfully compiled, probes were successfully
            enabled, or anonymous state was successfully retrieved. dtrace
            returns 0 even if the specified tracing requests encountered
            errors or drops.


       1
            An error occurred.

            For D program requests, an exit status of 1 indicates that program
            compilation failed or that the specified request could not be
            satisfied.


       2
            Invalid command line options or arguments were specified.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:




       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |  ATTRIBUTE TYPE    | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Availability        | SUNWdtrc        |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Interface Stability | See below.      |
       +--------------------+-----------------+


       The command-line syntax is Committed. The human-readable output is
       Uncommitted.

SEE ALSO
       cpp(1), isainfo(1), libdtrace(3LIB), driver.conf(4), attributes(5),
       dtrace(7D)


       Solaris Dynamic Tracing Guide



SunOS 5.11                        5 Sep 2006                         dtrace(1)