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EXPR(1) General Commands Manual EXPR(1)NAMEexpr-- evaluate expressionSYNOPSISexprexpressionDESCRIPTIONTheexprutility evaluates expression and writes the result on standard output. All operators are separate arguments to theexprutility. Characters special to the command interpreter must be escaped. Operators are listed below in order of increasing precedence. Operators with equal precedence are grouped within { } symbols. expr1 | expr2 Returns the evaluation of expr1 if it is neither an empty string nor zero; otherwise, returns the evaluation of expr2. expr1 & expr2 Returns the evaluation of expr1 if neither expression evaluates to an empty string or zero; otherwise, returns zero. expr1 {=, >, >=, <, <=, !=} expr2 Returns the results of integer comparison if both arguments are integers; otherwise, returns the results of string comparison using the locale-specific collation sequence. The result of each comparison is 1 if the specified relation is true, or 0 if the relation is false. expr1 {+, -} expr2 Returns the results of addition or subtraction of integer-valued arguments. expr1 {*, /, %} expr2 Returns the results of multiplication, integer division, or remainder of integer-valued arguments. expr1 : expr2 The ``:'' operator matches expr1 against expr2, which must be a regular expression. The regular expression is anchored to the beginning of the string with an implicit ``^''. If the match succeeds and the pattern contains at least one regular expression subexpression ``\(...\)'', the string corresponding to ``\1'' is returned; otherwise the matching operator returns the number of characters matched. If the match fails and the pattern contains a regular expression subexpression the null string is returned; otherwise 0. ( expr ) Parentheses are used for grouping in the usual manner. Additionally, the following keywords are recognized: length expr Returns the length of the specified string in bytes. Operator precedence (from highest to lowest): 1. parentheses 2. length 3. ``:'' 4. ``*'', ``/'', and ``%'' 5. ``+'' and ``-'' 6. compare operators 7. ``&'' 8. ``|''EXITSTATUSTheexprutility exits with one of the following values: 0 the expression is neither an empty string nor 0. 1 the expression is an empty string or 0. 2 the expression is invalid. >2 an error occurred (such as memory allocation failure).EXAMPLES1. The following example adds one to variable ``a'': a=`expr $a + 1` 2. The following example returns zero, due to subtraction having higher precedence than the ``&'' operator: expr 1 '&' 1 - 1 3. The following example returns the filename portion of a pathname stored in variable ``a'': expr /$a : '.*/\(.*\)' 4. The following example returns the number of characters in variable ``a'': expr $a : '.*'COMPATIBILITYThis implementation ofexprinternally uses 64 bit representation of integers and checks for over- and underflows. It also treats ``/'' (the division mark) and option ``--'' correctly depending upon context.expron other systems (including NetBSD up to and including NetBSD 1.5) might not be so graceful. Arithmetic results might be arbitrarily limited on such systems, most commonly to 32 bit quantities. This means suchexprcan only process values between -2147483648 and +2147483647. On other systems,exprmight also not work correctly for regular expressions where either side contains ``/'' (a single forward slash), like this: expr / : '.*/\(.*\)' If this is the case, you might use ``//'' (a double forward slash) to avoid confusion with the division operator: expr "//$a" : '.*/\(.*\)' According to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''),exprhas to recognize special option ``--'', treat it as a delimiter to mark the end of command line options, and ignore it. Someexprimplementations don't recognize it at all; others might ignore it even in cases where doing so results in syntax error. There should be same result for both following examples, but it might not always be: 1. expr -- : . 2. expr -- -- : . Although NetBSDexprhandles both cases correctly, you should not depend on this behavior for portability reasons and avoid passing a bare ``--'' as the first argument.STANDARDSTheexprutility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''). The length keyword is an extension for compatibility with GNUexpr.AUTHORSOriginal implementation was written by J.T. Conklin <jtc@NetBSD.org>. It was rewritten for NetBSD 1.6 by Jaromir Dolecek <jdolecek@NetBSD.org>.NOTESThe empty string ``'' cannot be matched with the intuitive: expr '' : '$' The reason is that the returned number of matched characters (zero) is indistinguishable from a failed match, so this returns failure. To match the empty string, use something like: expr x'' : 'x$' NetBSD 7.1.2 April 20, 2004 NetBSD 7.1.2