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FETCH(3)                   Library Functions Manual                   FETCH(3)

     fetchMakeURL, fetchParseURL, fetchCopyURL, fetchFreeURL, fetchXGetURL,
     fetchGetURL, fetchPutURL, fetchStatURL, fetchListURL, fetchXGet,
     fetchGet, fetchPut, fetchStat, fetchList, fetchXGetFile, fetchGetFile,
     fetchPutFile, fetchStatFile, fetchListFile, fetchXGetHTTP, fetchGetHTTP,
     fetchPutHTTP, fetchStatHTTP, fetchListHTTP, fetchXGetFTP, fetchGetFTP,
     fetchPutFTP, fetchStatFTP, fetchListFTP fetchInitURLList,
     fetchFreeURLList, fetchUnquotePath, fetchUnquoteFilename,
     fetchStringifyURL, fetchConnectionCacheInit, fetchConnectionCacheClose,
     fetch - file transfer functions

     File Transfer Library (libfetch, -lfetch)

     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <fetch.h>

     struct url *
     fetchMakeURL(const char *scheme, const char *host, int port,
         const char *doc, const char *user, const char *pwd);

     struct url *
     fetchParseURL(const char *URL);

     struct url *
     fetchCopyURL(const struct url *u);

     fetchFreeURL(struct url *u);

     fetchIO *
     fetchXGetURL(const char *URL, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchGetURL(const char *URL, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchPutURL(const char *URL, const char *flags);

     fetchStatURL(const char *URL, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchListURL(struct url_list *list, const char *URL, const char *pattern,
         const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchXGet(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchGet(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchPut(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchStat(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchList(struct url_list *list, struct url *u, const char *pattern,
         const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchXGetFile(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchGetFile(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchPutFile(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchStatFile(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchListFile(struct url_list *list, struct url *u, const char *pattern,
         const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchXGetHTTP(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchGetHTTP(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchPutHTTP(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchStatHTTP(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchListHTTP(struct url_list *list, struct url *u, const char *pattern,
         const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchXGetFTP(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchGetFTP(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchIO *
     fetchPutFTP(struct url *u, const char *flags);

     fetchStatFTP(struct url *u, struct url_stat *us, const char *flags);

     fetchListFTP(struct url_list *list, struct url *u, const char *pattern,
         const char *flags);

     fetchInitURLList(struct url_list *ul);

     fetchAppendURLList(struct url_list *dst, const struct url_list *src);

     fetchFreeURLList(struct url_list *ul);

     char *
     fetchUnquotePath(struct url *u);

     char *
     fetchUnquoteFilename(struct url *u);

     char *
     fetchStringifyURL(const struct url *u);

     fetchConnectionCacheInit(int global, int per_host);


     These functions implement a high-level library for retrieving and
     uploading files using Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).

     fetchParseURL() takes a URL in the form of a null-terminated string and
     splits it into its components function according to the Common Internet
     Scheme Syntax detailed in RFC 1738.  A regular expression which produces
     this syntax is:


     If the URL does not seem to begin with a scheme name, it is assumed to be
     a local path.  Only absolute path names are accepted.

     Note that some components of the URL are not necessarily relevant to all
     URL schemes.  For instance, the file scheme only needs the <scheme> and
     <doc> components.  fetchParseURL() quotes any unsafe character in the URL
     automatically.  This is not done by fetchMakeURL().  fetchCopyURL()
     copies an existing url structure.

     fetchMakeURL(), fetchParseURL(), and fetchCopyURL() return a pointer to a
     url structure, which is defined as follows in <fetch.h>:

     #define URL_SCHEMELEN 16
     #define URL_USERLEN 256
     #define URL_PWDLEN 256
     #define URL_HOSTLEN 255

     struct url {
         char         scheme[URL_SCHEMELEN + 1];
         char         user[URL_USERLEN + 1];
         char         pwd[URL_PWDLEN + 1];
         char         host[URL_HOSTLEN + 1];
         int          port;
         char        *doc;
         off_t        offset;
         size_t       length;
         time_t       last_modified;

     The pointer returned by fetchMakeURL(), fetchCopyURL(), and
     fetchParseURL() should be freed using fetchFreeURL().  The size of struct
     URL is not part of the ABI.

     fetchXGetURL(), fetchGetURL(), and fetchPutURL() constitute the
     recommended interface to the fetch library.  They examine the URL passed
     to them to determine the transfer method, and call the appropriate lower-
     level functions to perform the actual transfer.  fetchXGetURL() also
     returns the remote document's metadata in the url_stat structure pointed
     to by the us argument.

     The flags argument is a string of characters which specify transfer
     options.  The meaning of the individual flags is scheme-dependent, and is
     detailed in the appropriate section below.

     fetchStatURL() attempts to obtain the requested document's metadata and
     fill in the structure pointed to by its second argument.  The url_stat
     structure is defined as follows in <fetch.h>:

     struct url_stat {
         off_t        size;
         time_t       atime;
         time_t       mtime;

     If the size could not be obtained from the server, the size field is set
     to -1.  If the modification time could not be obtained from the server,
     the mtime field is set to the epoch.  If the access time could not be
     obtained from the server, the atime field is set to the modification

     fetchListURL() attempts to list the contents of the directory pointed to
     by the URL provided.  The pattern can be a simple glob-like expression as
     hint.  Callers should not depend on the server to filter names.  If
     successful, it appends the list of entries to the url_list structure.
     The url_list structure is defined as follows in <fetch.h>:

     struct url_list {
         size_t      length;
         size_t      alloc_size;
         struct url  *urls;

     The list should be initialized by calling fetchInitURLList() and the
     entries be freed by calling fetchFreeURLList().  The function
     fetchAppendURLList() can be used to append one URL lists to another.  If
     the `c' (cache result) flag is specified, the library is allowed to
     internally cache the result.

     fetchStringifyURL() returns the URL as string.  fetchUnquotePath()
     returns the path name part of the URL with any quoting undone.  Query
     arguments and fragment identifiers are not included.
     fetchUnquoteFilename() returns the last component of the path name as
     returned by fetchUnquotePath().  fetchStringifyURL(), fetchUnquotePath(),
     and fetchUnquoteFilename() return a string that should be deallocated
     with free() after use.

     fetchConnectionCacheInit() enables the connection cache.  The first
     argument specifies the global limit on cached connections.  The second
     argument specifies the host limit.  Entries are considered to specify the
     same host, if the host name from the URL is identical, indepent of the
     address or address family.  fetchConnectionCacheClose() flushed the
     connection cache and closes all cached connections.

     fetchXGet(), fetchGet(), fetchPut(), and fetchStat() are similar to
     fetchXGetURL(), fetchGetURL(), fetchPutURL(), and fetchStatURL(), except
     that they expect a pre-parsed URL in the form of a pointer to a struct
     url rather than a string.

     All of the fetchXGetXXX(), fetchGetXXX(), and fetchPutXXX() functions
     return a pointer to a stream which can be used to read or write data from
     or to the requested document, respectively.  Note that although the
     implementation details of the individual access methods vary, it can
     generally be assumed that a stream returned by one of the fetchXGetXXX()
     or fetchGetXXX() functions is read-only, and that a stream returned by
     one of the fetchPutXXX() functions is write-only.

     If the `i' (if-modified-since) flag is specified, the library will try to
     fetch the content only if it is newer than last_modified.  For HTTP an
     If-Modified-Since HTTP header is sent.  For FTP a MTDM command is sent
     first and compared locally.  For FILE the source file is compared.

     fetchXGetFile(), fetchGetFile(), and fetchPutFile() provide access to
     documents which are files in a locally mounted file system.  Only the
     <document> component of the URL is used.

     fetchXGetFile() and fetchGetFile() do not accept any flags.

     fetchPutFile() accepts the `a' (append to file) flag.  If that flag is
     specified, the data written to the stream returned by fetchPutFile() will
     be appended to the previous contents of the file, instead of replacing

     fetchXGetFTP(), fetchGetFTP(), and fetchPutFTP() implement the FTP
     protocol as described in RFC 959.

     By default libfetch will attempt to use passive mode first and only
     fallback to active mode if the server reports a syntax error.  If the `a'
     (active) flag is specified, a passive connection is not tried and active
     mode is used directly.

     If the `l' (low) flag is specified, data sockets will be allocated in the
     low (or default) port range instead of the high port range (see ip(4)).

     If the `d' (direct) flag is specified, fetchXGetFTP(), fetchGetFTP(), and
     fetchPutFTP() will use a direct connection even if a proxy server is

     If no user name or password is given, the fetch library will attempt an
     anonymous login, with user name "anonymous" and password

     The fetchXGetHTTP(), fetchGetHTTP(), and fetchPutHTTP() functions
     implement the HTTP/1.1 protocol.  With a little luck, there is even a
     chance that they comply with RFC 2616 and RFC 2617.

     If the `d' (direct) flag is specified, fetchXGetHTTP(), fetchGetHTTP(),
     and fetchPutHTTP() will use a direct connection even if a proxy server is

     Since there seems to be no good way of implementing the HTTP PUT method
     in a manner consistent with the rest of the fetch library, fetchPutHTTP()
     is currently unimplemented.

     Apart from setting the appropriate environment variables and specifying
     the user name and password in the URL or the struct url, the calling
     program has the option of defining an authentication function with the
     following prototype:

     int myAuthMethod(struct url *u)

     The callback function should fill in the user and pwd fields in the
     provided struct url and return 0 on success, or any other value to
     indicate failure.

     To register the authentication callback, simply set fetchAuthMethod to
     point at it.  The callback will be used whenever a site requires
     authentication and the appropriate environment variables are not set.

     This interface is experimental and may be subject to change.

     fetchParseURL() returns a pointer to a struct url containing the
     individual components of the URL.  If it is unable to allocate memory, or
     the URL is syntactically incorrect, fetchParseURL() returns a NULL

     The fetchStat() functions return 0 on success and -1 on failure.

     All other functions return a stream pointer which may be used to access
     the requested document, or NULL if an error occurred.

     The following error codes are defined in <fetch.h>:

     [FETCH_ABORT]       Operation aborted

     [FETCH_AUTH]        Authentication failed

     [FETCH_DOWN]        Service unavailable

     [FETCH_EXISTS]      File exists

     [FETCH_FULL]        File system full

     [FETCH_INFO]        Informational response

     [FETCH_MEMORY]      Insufficient memory

     [FETCH_MOVED]       File has moved

     [FETCH_NETWORK]     Network error

     [FETCH_OK]          No error

     [FETCH_PROTO]       Protocol error

     [FETCH_RESOLV]      Resolver error

     [FETCH_SERVER]      Server error

     [FETCH_TEMP]        Temporary error

     [FETCH_TIMEOUT]     Operation timed out

     [FETCH_UNAVAIL]     File is not available

     [FETCH_UNKNOWN]     Unknown error

     [FETCH_URL]         Invalid URL

     The accompanying error message includes a protocol-specific error code
     and message, e.g. "File is not available (404 Not Found)"

     FETCH_BIND_ADDRESS      Specifies a host name or IP address to which
                             sockets used for outgoing connections will be

     FTP_LOGIN               Default FTP login if none was provided in the

     FTP_PASSIVE_MODE        If set to anything but `no', forces the FTP code
                             to use passive mode.

     FTP_PASSWORD            Default FTP password if the remote server
                             requests one and none was provided in the URL.

     FTP_PROXY               URL of the proxy to use for FTP requests.  The
                             document part is ignored.  FTP and HTTP proxies
                             are supported; if no scheme is specified, FTP is
                             assumed.  If the proxy is an FTP proxy, libfetch
                             will send `user@host' as user name to the proxy,
                             where `user' is the real user name, and `host' is
                             the name of the FTP server.

                             If this variable is set to an empty string, no
                             proxy will be used for FTP requests, even if the
                             HTTP_PROXY variable is set.

     ftp_proxy               Same as FTP_PROXY, for compatibility.

     HTTP_AUTH               Specifies HTTP authorization parameters as a
                             colon-separated list of items.  The first and
                             second item are the authorization scheme and
                             realm respectively; further items are scheme-
                             dependent.  Currently, only basic authorization
                             is supported.

                             Basic authorization requires two parameters: the
                             user name and password, in that order.

                             This variable is only used if the server requires
                             authorization and no user name or password was
                             specified in the URL.

     HTTP_PROXY              URL of the proxy to use for HTTP requests.  The
                             document part is ignored.  Only HTTP proxies are
                             supported for HTTP requests.  If no port number
                             is specified, the default is 3128.

                             Note that this proxy will also be used for FTP
                             documents, unless the FTP_PROXY variable is set.

     http_proxy              Same as HTTP_PROXY, for compatibility.

     HTTP_PROXY_AUTH         Specifies authorization parameters for the HTTP
                             proxy in the same format as the HTTP_AUTH

                             This variable is used if and only if connected to
                             an HTTP proxy, and is ignored if a user and/or a
                             password were specified in the proxy URL.

     HTTP_REFERER            Specifies the referrer URL to use for HTTP
                             requests.  If set to "auto", the document URL
                             will be used as referrer URL.

     HTTP_USER_AGENT         Specifies the User-Agent string to use for HTTP
                             requests.  This can be useful when working with
                             HTTP origin or proxy servers that differentiate
                             between user agents.

     NETRC                   Specifies a file to use instead of ~/.netrc to
                             look up login names and passwords for FTP sites.
                             See ftp(1) for a description of the file format.
                             This feature is experimental.

     NO_PROXY                Either a single asterisk, which disables the use
                             of proxies altogether, or a comma- or whitespace-
                             separated list of hosts for which proxies should
                             not be used.

     no_proxy                Same as NO_PROXY, for compatibility.

     To access a proxy server on proxy.example.com port 8080, set the
     HTTP_PROXY environment variable in a manner similar to this:


     If the proxy server requires authentication, there are two options
     available for passing the authentication data.  The first method is by
     using the proxy URL:


     The second method is by using the HTTP_PROXY_AUTH environment variable:


     To disable the use of a proxy for an HTTP server running on the local
     host, define NO_PROXY as follows:


     ftp(1), ip(4)

     J. Postel and J. K. Reynolds, File Transfer Protocol, October 1985, RFC

     P. Deutsch, A. Emtage, and A. Marine, How to Use Anonymous FTP, May 1994,
     RFC 1635.

     T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter, and M. McCahill, Uniform Resource Locators
     (URL), December 1994, RFC 1738.

     R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, and
     T. Berners-Lee, Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1, January 1999,
     RFC 2616.

     J. Franks, P. Hallam-Baker, J. Hostetler, S. Lawrence, P. Leach, A.
     Luotonen, and L. Stewart, HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access
     Authentication, June 1999, RFC 2617.

     The fetch library first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.

     The fetch library was mostly written by Dag-Erling Sm/orgrav
     <des@FreeBSD.org> with numerous suggestions from Jordan K. Hubbard
     <jkh@FreeBSD.org>, Eugene Skepner <eu@qub.com> and other FreeBSD
     developers.  It replaces the older ftpio library written by Poul-Henning
     Kamp <phk@FreeBSD.org> and Jordan K. Hubbard <jkh@FreeBSD.org>.

     This manual page was written by Dag-Erling Sm/orgrav <des@FreeBSD.org>.

     Some parts of the library are not yet implemented.  The most notable
     examples of this are fetchPutHTTP() and FTP proxy support.

     There is no way to select a proxy at run-time other than setting the
     HTTP_PROXY or FTP_PROXY environment variables as appropriate.

     libfetch does not understand or obey 305 (Use Proxy) replies.

     Error numbers are unique only within a certain context; the error codes
     used for FTP and HTTP overlap, as do those used for resolver and system
     errors.  For instance, error code 202 means "Command not implemented,
     superfluous at this site" in an FTP context and "Accepted" in an HTTP

     fetchStatFTP() does not check that the result of an MDTM command is a
     valid date.

     The man page is incomplete, poorly written and produces badly formatted

     The error reporting mechanism is unsatisfactory.

     Some parts of the code are not fully reentrant.

NetBSD 9.99                    January 22, 2010                    NetBSD 9.99