Updated: 2021/Apr/14


GETRANDOM(2)                  System Calls Manual                 GETRANDOM(2)

NAME
     getrandom - random number generation from system entropy

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/random.h>

     ssize_t
     getrandom(void *buf, size_t buflen, unsigned int flags);

DESCRIPTION
     The getrandom function fills buf with up to buflen independent uniform
     random bytes derived from the system's entropy pool.

     The function may block until the system has full entropy, meaning that
     the system has observed enough noise from physical processes that an
     adversary cannot predict what state it is in:
        When the system has only partial entropy, the output of getrandom()
         may be predictable.
        When the system has full entropy, the output is fit for use as
         cryptographic key material.

     The flags argument may be:

         0              Block until the system entropy pool has full entropy;
                        then generate arbitrarily much data.  Recommended.

                        If interrupted by a signal, may fail with EINTR or
                        return a short read.  If successful, guaranteed to
                        return at least 256 bytes even if interrupted.

         GRND_INSECURE  Do not block; instead fill buf with output derived
                        from whatever is in the system entropy pool so far.
                        Equivalent to reading from /dev/urandom; see rnd(4).

                        If interrupted by a signal, may fail with EINTR or
                        return a short read.  If successful, guaranteed to
                        return at least 256 bytes even if interrupted.

                        Despite the name, this is secure as long as you only
                        do it after at least one successful call without
                        GRND_INSECURE, such as getrandom(..., 0) or
                        getrandom(..., GRND_RANDOM), or after reading at least
                        one byte from /dev/random.

                        WARNING: If you use GRND_INSECURE before the system
                        has full entropy. the output may enable an adversary
                        to search the possible states of the entropy pool by
                        brute force, and thereby reduce its entropy to zero.
                        Thus, incautious use of GRND_INSECURE can ruin the
                        security of the whole system.

                        NetBSD attempts to defend against this threat model by
                        resetting the system's entropy estimate to zero in
                        this event, requiring gathering full entropy again
                        before /dev/random or getrandom() without
                        GRND_INSECURE will unblock, but other operating
                        systems may not.

         GRND_RANDOM    Block until the system entropy pool has full entropy;
                        then generate a small amount of data.  Equivalent to
                        reading from /dev/random; see rnd(4).  This is
                        provided mainly for source compatibility with Linux;
                        there is essentially no reason to ever use it.

     The flag GNRD_NONBLOCK may also be included with bitwise-OR, in which
     case if getrandom() would have blocked without GRND_NONBLOCK, it returns
     EAGAIN instead.

     Adding GRND_NONBLOCK to GRND_INSECURE has no effect; the combination
     GRND_INSECURE|GRND_NONBLOCK is equivalent to GRND_INSECURE, since
     GRND_INSECURE never blocks.  The combination GRND_INSECURE|GRND_RANDOM is
     nonsensical and fails with EINVAL.

RETURN VALUES
     If successful, getrandom() returns the number of bytes stored in buf.
     Otherwise, getrandom() returns -1 and sets errno.

     Since getrandom(..., 0) and getrandom(..., GRND_INSECURE) are guaranteed
     to return at least 256 bytes if successful, it is sufficient to use,
     e.g.,
             getrandom(buf, 32, 0) == -1
     or
             getrandom(buf, 32, GRND_INSECURE) == -1
     to detect failure.  However, with GRND_RANDOM, getrandom() may return as
     little as a single byte if successful.

EXAMPLES
     Recommended usage.  Generate a key for cryptography:

             uint8_t secretkey[32];

             if (getrandom(secretkey, sizeof secretkey, 0) == -1)
                     err(EXIT_FAILURE, "getrandom");
             crypto_secretbox_xsalsa20poly1305(..., secretkey);

     Other idioms for illustration:

        Wait for entropy once, and then generate many keys without waiting:

                 struct { uint8_t key[32]; } user[100];

                 if (getrandom(NULL, 0, 0) == -1)
                         err(EXIT_FAILURE, "getrandom");
                 for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
                         if (getrandom(user[i].key, sizeof user[i].key,
                             GRND_INSECURE) == -1)
                                 err(EXIT_FAILURE, "getrandom");

        Twiddle thumbs while waiting for entropy:

                 uint8_t secretkey[32];

                 while (getrandom(secretkey, sizeof secretkey, GRND_NONBLOCK)
                     == -1) {
                         if (errno != EAGAIN)
                                 err(EXIT_FAILURE, "getrandom");
                         twiddle_thumbs();
                 }
                 crypto_secretbox_xsalsa20poly1305(..., secretkey);

     (No examples of GRND_RANDOM because it is not useful.)

ERRORS
     [EAGAIN]           The GRND_NONBLOCK flag was specified, and the system
                        entropy pool does not have full entropy.

     [EINTR]            The GRND_NONBLOCK flag was not specified, the system
                        entropy pool does not have full entropy, and the
                        process was interrupted by a signal while waiting.

     [EINVAL]           flags contains an unrecognized flag or a nonsensical
                        combination of flags.

     [EFAULT]           buf points outside the allocated address space.

SEE ALSO
     rnd(4)

HISTORY
     The getrandom system call first appeared in Linux 3.17, and was added to
     NetBSD 10.0.

AUTHORS
     The NetBSD implementation of getrandom and this man page were written by
     Taylor R Campbell <riastradh@NetBSD.org>.

BUGS
     There is no way to multiplex waiting for getrandom() with other I/O in
     select(2), poll(2), or kqueue(2).  Instead, you can wait for a read from
     /dev/random; see rnd(4).

     GRND_RANDOM is a little silly.

NetBSD 9.99                    January 13, 2020                    NetBSD 9.99