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GROFF_CHAR(7)          Miscellaneous Information Manual          GROFF_CHAR(7)



NAME
       groff_char - groff glyph names

DESCRIPTION
       ' .    ds aq ' ECFONTS .      ds aq ' This manual page lists the
       standard groff glyph names and the default input mapping, latin-1.  The
       glyphs in this document will look different depending on which output
       device was chosen (with option -T for the man(1) program or the roff
       formatter).  Glyphs not available for the device that is being used to
       print or view this manual page will be marked with `(N/A)'; the device
       currently used is `'.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct
       input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, input
       character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by
       default.  This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be
       changed by loading a different input encoding.  Note that some of the
       input characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for
       special input purposes.  On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is
       supported (which contains the same characters as Latin-1; the input
       encoding file is called cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are
       reserved for internal and special purposes.  It is rather
       straightforward (for the experienced user) to set up other 8-bit
       encodings like Latin-2; since groff will use Unicode in the next major
       version, no additional encodings are provided.

       All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs.  In traditional
       roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also
       provides support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the
       printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single characters; these exist for historical reasons or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include `\\',
       `\'', `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be
       tested positively with the `.if c' conditional.

REFERENCE
       In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the glyph is printed for the current device; although
              this can have quite a different shape on other devices, it
              always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
              specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the
              keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
              applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character,
              and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input character.
              Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

       PostScript name
              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

       Unicode decomposed
              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

   7-bit Character Codes 32-126
       These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned.
       They are identical to the printable characters of the character
       standards ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic
       Latin).  The glyph names used in composite glyph names are `u0020' up
       to `u007E'.

       Note that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not
       printable characters.  Most of them are invalid input characters for
       groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For EBCDIC, the
       printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print
       as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the ISO Latin-1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left
              single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained
              with `\`'.

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right
              single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained
              with `\(aq'.

       -      the ISO Latin-1 `Hyphen, Minus Sign' (code 45) prints as a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1 `Tilde' (code 126) is reduced in size to be
              usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with
              `\(ti'.

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in size
              to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with
              `\(ha'.

       OutputInputInputPostScriptUnicodeNotes
       namecodenamedecomposed

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

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        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0


   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according to the Latin-1
       (iso-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls
       and Latin-1 Supplement.

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not
       printable characters.

       160    the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the
              stretchable space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character.  groff never uses this
              character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below);
              the input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable characters that
       print as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with the
       keyboard on systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to use their
       glyph names; see next section.

       OutputInputInputPostScriptUnicodeNotes
       namecodenamedecomposed

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

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        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

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        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0

        .      nr CH 0


   Named Glyphs
       Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape
       sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.  Glyph
       names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or
       Latin-1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some
       examples:

       \c     A glyph having the name c, which consists of a single character
              (length 1).

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

       \[char_name]
              A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the
       construct `\[charn]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a
       number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are not
       glyph names).  They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin
       request.  Another special convention is the handling of glyphs with
       names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is discussed
       below.  Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char request;
       see groff(7).

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that this
       particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the original troff
       documentation, CSTR 54.

       OutputInputPostScriptUnicodeNotes
       namenamedecomposed

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       Accented Characters

       Accents

       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing
       glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing)
       ones.

        {.    ie cv .      char  vc 'a {.    ie c' .      char 'a 'a

       OutputInputPostScriptUnicodeNotes
       namenamedecomposed

       Quotes

       Punctuation

       Brackets

       The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In classical
       troff only one glyph was available to vertically extend brackets,
       braces, and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.

       Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can
       be piled up with `\b' due to the restrictions of the escape's piling
       algorithm.  A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the
       following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
              .eo
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"
              ..
              .ec

       Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent
       bracket pieces in original troff can be used for other mathematical
       symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor'
       operator.  Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don't unify such
       glyphs.  For this reason, the four glyphs `lf', `rf', `lc', and `rc'
       are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces.  In groff, only
       glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up correctly for all
       devices (provided those glyphs exist).

       OutputInputPostScriptUnicodeNotes
       namenamedecomposed























       Arrows

       Lines

       The font-invariant glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners; they can
       be used to build boxes.  Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-
       derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

       `rn' also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the
       square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       OutputInputPostScriptUnicodeNotes
       namenamedecomposed

       Text markers

       Legal Symbols

       Currency symbols

       Units

       Logical Symbols



       Mathematical Symbols












       Greek characters

       These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek;
       normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase
       ones are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to
       Unicode.  Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6,
       GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly
       described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a
       reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs have been
       exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5
       is the stroked variant and U+03C5 the curly glyph.  Unfortunately, most
       font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in
       Unicode.  At the time of this writing (February 2003), it is not clear
       yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names `phi' and `phi1' also change its
       meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely
       to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a
       PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and
       `\[+f]' the curly variant.

       Card symbols

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989-2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software
       Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have received
       a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was
       written by with additions by and

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              the GNU roff formatter.

       groff(7)
              a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989



Groff Version 1.19.2           September 4, 2005                 GROFF_CHAR(7)