Updated: 2022/Sep/29

Please read Privacy Policy. It's for your privacy.

LAST(1)                     General Commands Manual                    LAST(1)

     last - indicate last logins of users and ttys

     last [-n] [-nTx] [-f file] [-H hostsize] [-h host] [-L linesize]
          [-N namesize] [-t tty] [user ...]

     last will list the sessions of specified users, ttys, and hosts, in
     reverse time order.  Each line of output contains the user name, the tty
     from which the session was conducted, any hostname, the start and stop
     times for the session, and the duration of the session.  If the session
     is still continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown, last will so

     The following options are available:

     -n             Limits the report to n lines.

     -f file        last reads the file file instead of the default,
                    /var/log/wtmpx or /var/log/wtmp.  If the file ends with
                    `x', it is treated as a utmpx(5) format file, else it is
                    treated as a utmp(5) format file.  If the file is ``-'',
                    standard input is used.

     -H hostsize    Use the provided hostsize as the width to format the host
                    name field.

     -h host        Host names may be names or internet numbers.

     -L linesize    Use the provided linesize as the width to format the tty

     -N namesize    Use the provided namesize as the width to format the login
                    name field.

     -n             Print host addresses numerically.  This option works only
                    on wtmpx(5) entries, and prints nothing on wtmp(5)

     -T             Display better time information, including the year and

     -t tty         Specify the tty.  Tty names may be given fully or
                    abbreviated, for example, "last -t 03" is equivalent to
                    "last -t tty03".

     -x             Assume that the file given is in wtmpx(5) format, even if
                    the filename does not end with an `x'.  Also useful when
                    reading such format from standard input.

     If multiple arguments are given, the information which applies to any of
     the arguments is printed, e.g., "last root -t console" would list all of
     "root's" sessions as well as all sessions on the console terminal.  If no
     users, hostnames, or terminals are specified, last prints a record of all
     logins and logouts.

     The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system, thus "last
     reboot" will give an indication of mean time between reboot.

     If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has
     progressed.  If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
     search has progressed and then continues.

     /var/log/wtmp   login data base
     /var/log/wtmpx  login data base

     lastcomm(1), utmp(5), utmpx(5), ac(8), lastlogin(8)

     last appeared in 1BSD.

NetBSD 10.99                   October 18, 2011                   NetBSD 10.99