Updated: 2021/Apr/14

```RAND48(3)                  Library Functions Manual                  RAND48(3)

NAME
drand48, erand48, lrand48, nrand48, mrand48, jrand48, srand48, seed48,
lcong48 - pseudo-random number generators and initialization routines

LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
#include <stdlib.h>

double
drand48(void);

double
erand48(unsigned short xseed);

long
lrand48(void);

long
nrand48(unsigned short xseed);

long
mrand48(void);

long
jrand48(unsigned short xseed);

void
srand48(long seed);

unsigned short *
seed48(unsigned short xseed);

void
lcong48(unsigned short p);

DESCRIPTION
The rand48() family of functions generates pseudo-random numbers using a
linear congruential algorithm working on integers 48 bits in size.  The
particular formula employed is r(n+1) = (a * r(n) + c) mod m where the
default values are for the multiplicand a = 0x5deece66d = 25214903917 and
the addend c = 0xb = 11.  The modulus is always fixed at m = 2 ** 48.
r(n) is called the seed of the random number generator.

For all the six generator routines described next, the first
computational step is to perform a single iteration of the algorithm.

drand48() and erand48() return values of type double.  The full 48 bits
of r(n+1) are loaded into the significand of the returned value, with the
exponent set such that the values produced lie in the interval [0.0,
1.0).

lrand48() and nrand48() return values of type long in the range [0,
2**31-1].  The high-order (31) bits of r(n+1) are loaded into the lower
bits of the returned value, with the topmost (sign) bit set to zero.

mrand48() and jrand48() return values of type long in the range [-2**31,
2**31-1].  The high-order (32) bits of r(n+1) are loaded into the
returned value.

drand48(), lrand48(), and mrand48() use an internal buffer to store r(n).
For these functions the initial value of r(0) = 0x1234abcd330e =
20017429951246.

On the other hand, erand48(), nrand48(), and jrand48() use a user-
supplied buffer to store the seed r(n), which consists of an array of 3
unsigned shorts, where the zeroth member holds the least significant
bits.

All functions share the same multiplicand and addend.

srand48() is used to initialize the internal buffer r(n) of drand48(),
lrand48(), and mrand48() such that the 32 bits of the seed value are
copied into the upper 32 bits of r(n), with the lower 16 bits of r(n)
arbitrarily being set to 0x330e.  Additionally, the constant multiplicand
and addend of the algorithm are reset to the default values given above.

seed48() also initializes the internal buffer r(n) of drand48(),
lrand48(), and mrand48(), but here all 48 bits of the seed can be
specified in an array of 3 unsigned shorts, where the zeroth member
specifies the lowest bits.  Again, the constant multiplicand and addend
of the algorithm are reset to the default values given above.  seed48()
returns a pointer to an array of 3 unsigned shorts which contains the old
seed.  This array is statically allocated, thus its contents are lost
after each new call to seed48().

Finally, lcong48() allows full control over the multiplicand and addend
used in drand48(), erand48(), lrand48(), nrand48(), mrand48(), and
jrand48(), and the seed used in drand48(), lrand48(), and mrand48().  An
array of 7 unsigned shorts is passed as parameter; the first three shorts
are used to initialize the seed; the second three are used to initialize
the multiplicand; and the last short is used to initialize the addend.
It is thus not possible to use values greater than 0xffff as the addend.

Note that all three methods of seeding the random number generator always
also set the multiplicand and addend for any of the six generator calls.

For a more powerful random number generator, see random(3).

SEE ALSO
rand(3), random(3)

AUTHORS
Martin Birgmeier

NetBSD 9.99                    February 22, 2020                   NetBSD 9.99
```