Updated: 2021/Apr/14


RNDC(8)                             BIND 9                             RNDC(8)



NAME
       rndc - name server control utility

SYNOPSIS
       rndc [-b source-address] [-c config-file] [-k key-file] [-s server] [-p
       port] [-q] [-r] [-V] [-y key_id] [[-4] | [-6]] {command}

DESCRIPTION
       rndc controls the operation of a name server; it supersedes the ndc
       utility. If rndc is invoked with no command line options or arguments,
       it prints a short summary of the supported commands and the available
       options and their arguments.

       rndc communicates with the name server over a TCP connection, sending
       commands authenticated with digital signatures. In the current versions
       of rndc and named, the only supported authentication algorithms are
       HMAC-MD5 (for compatibility), HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224, HMAC-SHA256
       (default), HMAC-SHA384, and HMAC-SHA512. They use a shared secret on
       each end of the connection, which provides TSIG-style authentication
       for the command request and the name server's response.  All commands
       sent over the channel must be signed by a key_id known to the server.

       rndc reads a configuration file to determine how to contact the name
       server and decide what algorithm and key it should use.

OPTIONS

       -4     This option indicates use of IPv4 only.

       -6     This option indicates use of IPv6 only.

       -b source-address
              This option indicates source-address as the source address for
              the connection to the server. Multiple instances are permitted,
              to allow setting of both the IPv4 and IPv6 source addresses.

       -c config-file
              This option indicates config-file as the configuration file
              instead of the default, /etc/rndc.conf.

       -k key-file
              This option indicates key-file as the key file instead of the
              default, /etc/rndc.key. The key in /etc/rndc.key is used to
              authenticate commands sent to the server if the config-file does
              not exist.

       -s server
              server is the name or address of the server which matches a
              server statement in the configuration file for rndc. If no
              server is supplied on the command line, the host named by the
              default-server clause in the options statement of the rndc
              configuration file is used.

       -p port
              This option instructs BIND 9 to send commands to TCP port port
              instead of its default control channel port, 953.

       -q     This option sets quiet mode, where message text returned by the
              server is not printed unless there is an error.

       -r     This option instructs rndc to print the result code returned by
              named after executing the requested command (e.g.,
              ISC_R_SUCCESS, ISC_R_FAILURE, etc.).

       -V     This option enables verbose logging.

       -y key_id
              This option indicates use of the key key_id from the
              configuration file. For control message validation to succeed,
              key_id must be known by named with the same algorithm and secret
              string. If no key_id is specified, rndc first looks for a key
              clause in the server statement of the server being used, or if
              no server statement is present for that host, then in the
              default-key clause of the options statement. Note that the
              configuration file contains shared secrets which are used to
              send authenticated control commands to name servers, and should
              therefore not have general read or write access.

COMMANDS
       A list of commands supported by rndc can be seen by running rndc
       without arguments.

       Currently supported commands are:

       addzone zone [class [view]] configuration
              This command adds a zone while the server is running. This
              command requires the allow-new-zones option to be set to yes.
              The configuration string specified on the command line is the
              zone configuration text that would ordinarily be placed in
              named.conf.

              The configuration is saved in a file called viewname.nzf (or, if
              named is compiled with liblmdb, an LMDB database file called
              viewname.nzd). viewname is the name of the view, unless the view
              name contains characters that are incompatible with use as a
              file name, in which case a cryptographic hash of the view name
              is used instead. When named is restarted, the file is loaded
              into the view configuration so that zones that were added can
              persist after a restart.

              This sample addzone command adds the zone example.com to the
              default view:

              $ \ rndc addzone example.com '{ type master; file
              "example.com.db"; };'

              (Note the brackets around and semi-colon after the zone
              configuration text.)

              See also rndc delzone and rndc modzone.

       delzone [-clean] zone [class [view]]
              This command deletes a zone while the server is running.

              If the -clean argument is specified, the zone's master file (and
              journal file, if any) are deleted along with the zone. Without
              the -clean option, zone files must be deleted manually. (If the
              zone is of type secondary or stub, the files needing to be
              removed are reported in the output of the rndc delzone command.)

              If the zone was originally added via rndc addzone, then it is
              removed permanently. However, if it was originally configured in
              named.conf, then that original configuration remains in place;
              when the server is restarted or reconfigured, the zone is
              recreated. To remove it permanently, it must also be removed
              from named.conf.

              See also rndc addzone and rndc modzone.

       dnssec ( -status | -rollover -key id [-alg algorithm] [-when time] |
       -checkds [-key id [-alg algorithm]] [-when time] ( published |
       withdrawn )) zone [class [view]]
              This command allows you to interact with the "dnssec-policy" of
              a given zone.

              rndc dnssec -status show the DNSSEC signing state for the
              specified zone.

              rndc dnssec -rollover allows you to schedule key rollover for a
              specific key (overriding the original key lifetime).

              rndc dnssec -checkds will let named know that the DS for the
              given key has been seen published into or withdrawn from the
              parent.  This is required in order to complete a KSK rollover.
              If the -key id argument is specified, look for the key with the
              given identifier, otherwise if there is only one key acting as a
              KSK in the zone, assume the DS of that key (if there are
              multiple keys with the same tag, use -alg algorithm to select
              the correct algorithm).  The time that the DS has been published
              or withdrawn is set to now, unless otherwise specified with the
              argument -when time.

       dnstap ( -reopen | -roll [number] )
              This command closes and re-opens DNSTAP output files. rndc
              dnstap -reopen allows the output file to be renamed externally,
              so that named can truncate and re-open it. rndc dnstap -roll
              causes the output file to be rolled automatically, similar to
              log files. The most recent output file has ".0" appended to its
              name; the previous most recent output file is moved to ".1", and
              so on. If number is specified, then the number of backup log
              files is limited to that number.

       dumpdb [-all | -cache | -zones | -adb | -bad | -expired | -fail] [view
       ...]   This command dumps the server's caches (default) and/or zones to
              the dump file for the specified views. If no view is specified,
              all views are dumped.  (See the dump-file option in the BIND 9
              Administrator Reference Manual.)

       flush  This command flushes the server's cache.

       flushname name [view]
              This command flushes the given name from the view's DNS cache
              and, if applicable, from the view's nameserver address database,
              bad server cache, and SERVFAIL cache.

       flushtree name [view]
              This command flushes the given name, and all of its subdomains,
              from the view's DNS cache, address database, bad server cache,
              and SERVFAIL cache.

       freeze [zone [class [view]]]
              This command suspends updates to a dynamic zone. If no zone is
              specified, then all zones are suspended. This allows manual
              edits to be made to a zone normally updated by dynamic update,
              and causes changes in the journal file to be synced into the
              master file. All dynamic update attempts are refused while the
              zone is frozen.

              See also rndc thaw.

       halt [-p]
              This command stops the server immediately. Recent changes made
              through dynamic update or IXFR are not saved to the master
              files, but are rolled forward from the journal files when the
              server is restarted. If -p is specified, named's process ID is
              returned. This allows an external process to determine when
              named has completed halting.

              See also rndc stop.

       loadkeys [zone [class [view]]]
              This command fetches all DNSSEC keys for the given zone from the
              key directory. If they are within their publication period, they
              are merged into the zone's DNSKEY RRset. Unlike rndc sign,
              however, the zone is not immediately re-signed by the new keys,
              but is allowed to incrementally re-sign over time.

              This command requires that the zone be configured with a
              dnssec-policy, or that the auto-dnssec zone option be set to
              maintain, and also requires the zone to be configured to allow
              dynamic DNS. (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the Administrator
              Reference Manual for more details.)

       managed-keys (status | refresh | sync | destroy) [class [view]]
              This command inspects and controls the "managed-keys" database
              which handles RFC 5011 DNSSEC trust anchor maintenance. If a
              view is specified, these commands are applied to that view;
              otherwise, they are applied to all views.

              ⊕ When run with the status keyword, this prints the current
                status of the managed-keys database.

              ⊕ When run with the refresh keyword, this forces an immediate
                refresh query to be sent for all the managed keys, updating
                the managed-keys database if any new keys are found, without
                waiting the normal refresh interval.

              ⊕ When run with the sync keyword, this forces an immediate dump
                of the managed-keys database to disk (in the file
                managed-keys.bind or (viewname.mkeys). This synchronizes the
                database with its journal file, so that the database's current
                contents can be inspected visually.

              ⊕ When run with the destroy keyword, the managed-keys database
                is shut down and deleted, and all key maintenance is
                terminated.  This command should be used only with extreme
                caution.

                Existing keys that are already trusted are not deleted from
                memory; DNSSEC validation can continue after this command is
                used.  However, key maintenance operations cease until named
                is restarted or reconfigured, and all existing key maintenance
                states are deleted.

                Running rndc reconfig or restarting named immediately after
                this command causes key maintenance to be reinitialized from
                scratch, just as if the server were being started for the
                first time. This is primarily intended for testing, but it may
                also be used, for example, to jumpstart the acquisition of new
                keys in the event of a trust anchor rollover, or as a
                brute-force repair for key maintenance problems.

       modzone zone [class [view]] configuration
              This command modifies the configuration of a zone while the
              server is running. This command requires the allow-new-zones
              option to be set to yes.  As with addzone, the configuration
              string specified on the command line is the zone configuration
              text that would ordinarily be placed in named.conf.

              If the zone was originally added via rndc addzone, the
              configuration changes are recorded permanently and are still in
              effect after the server is restarted or reconfigured. However,
              if it was originally configured in named.conf, then that
              original configuration remains in place; when the server is
              restarted or reconfigured, the zone reverts to its original
              configuration. To make the changes permanent, it must also be
              modified in named.conf.

              See also rndc addzone and rndc delzone.

       notify zone [class [view]]
              This command resends NOTIFY messages for the zone.

       notrace
              This command sets the server's debugging level to 0.

              See also rndc trace.

       nta [( -class class | -dump | -force | -remove | -lifetime duration)]
       domain [view]
              This command sets a DNSSEC negative trust anchor (NTA) for
              domain, with a lifetime of duration. The default lifetime is
              configured in named.conf via the nta-lifetime option, and
              defaults to one hour. The lifetime cannot exceed one week.

              A negative trust anchor selectively disables DNSSEC validation
              for zones that are known to be failing because of
              misconfiguration rather than an attack. When data to be
              validated is at or below an active NTA (and above any other
              configured trust anchors), named aborts the DNSSEC validation
              process and treats the data as insecure rather than bogus. This
              continues until the NTA's lifetime has elapsed.

              NTAs persist across restarts of the named server. The NTAs for a
              view are saved in a file called name.nta, where name is the name
              of the view; if it contains characters that are incompatible
              with use as a file name, a cryptographic hash is generated from
              the name of the view.

              An existing NTA can be removed by using the -remove option.

              An NTA's lifetime can be specified with the -lifetime option.
              TTL-style suffixes can be used to specify the lifetime in
              seconds, minutes, or hours. If the specified NTA already exists,
              its lifetime is updated to the new value. Setting lifetime to
              zero is equivalent to -remove.

              If -dump is used, any other arguments are ignored and a list of
              existing NTAs is printed. Note that this may include NTAs that
              are expired but have not yet been cleaned up.

              Normally, named periodically tests to see whether data below an
              NTA can now be validated (see the nta-recheck option in the
              Administrator Reference Manual for details). If data can be
              validated, then the NTA is regarded as no longer necessary and
              is allowed to expire early. The -force parameter overrides this
              behavior and forces an NTA to persist for its entire lifetime,
              regardless of whether data could be validated if the NTA were
              not present.

              The view class can be specified with -class. The default is
              class IN, which is the only class for which DNSSEC is currently
              supported.

              All of these options can be shortened, i.e., to -l, -r, -d, -f,
              and -c.

              Unrecognized options are treated as errors. To refer to a domain
              or view name that begins with a hyphen, use a double-hyphen (--)
              on the command line to indicate the end of options.

       querylog [(on | off)]
              This command enables or disables query logging. For backward
              compatibility, this command can also be used without an argument
              to toggle query logging on and off.

              Query logging can also be enabled by explicitly directing the
              queries category to a channel in the logging section of
              named.conf, or by specifying querylog yes; in the options
              section of named.conf.

       reconfig
              This command reloads the configuration file and loads new zones,
              but does not reload existing zone files even if they have
              changed. This is faster than a full reload when there is a large
              number of zones, because it avoids the need to examine the
              modification times of the zone files.

       recursing
              This command dumps the list of queries named is currently
              recursing on, and the list of domains to which iterative queries
              are currently being sent.  The second list includes the number
              of fetches currently active for the given domain, and how many
              have been passed or dropped because of the fetches-per-zone
              option.

       refresh zone [class [view]]
              This command schedules zone maintenance for the given zone.

       reload This command reloads the configuration file and zones.

       reload zone [class [view]]
              This command reloads the given zone.

       retransfer zone [class [view]]
              This command retransfers the given secondary zone from the
              primary server.

              If the zone is configured to use inline-signing, the signed
              version of the zone is discarded; after the retransfer of the
              unsigned version is complete, the signed version is regenerated
              with new signatures.

       scan   This command scans the list of available network interfaces for
              changes, without performing a full reconfig or waiting for the
              interface-interval timer.

       secroots [-] [view ...]
              This command dumps the security roots (i.e., trust anchors
              configured via trust-anchors, or the managed-keys or
              trusted-keys statements [both deprecated], or dnssec-validation
              auto) and negative trust anchors for the specified views. If no
              view is specified, all views are dumped. Security roots indicate
              whether they are configured as trusted keys, managed keys, or
              initializing managed keys (managed keys that have not yet been
              updated by a successful key refresh query).

              If the first argument is -, then the output is returned via the
              rndc response channel and printed to the standard output.
              Otherwise, it is written to the secroots dump file, which
              defaults to named.secroots, but can be overridden via the
              secroots-file option in named.conf.

              See also rndc managed-keys.

       serve-stale (on | off | reset | status) [class [view]]
              This command enables, disables, resets, or reports the current
              status of the serving of stale answers as configured in
              named.conf.

              If serving of stale answers is disabled by rndc-serve-stale off,
              then it remains disabled even if named is reloaded or
              reconfigured. rndc serve-stale reset restores the setting as
              configured in named.conf.

              rndc serve-stale status reports whether serving of stale answers
              is currently enabled, disabled by the configuration, or disabled
              by rndc. It also reports the values of stale-answer-ttl and
              max-stale-ttl.

       showzone zone [class [view]]
              This command prints the configuration of a running zone.

              See also rndc zonestatus.

       sign zone [class [view]]
              This command fetches all DNSSEC keys for the given zone from the
              key directory (see the key-directory option in the BIND 9
              Administrator Reference Manual). If they are within their
              publication period, they are merged into the zone's DNSKEY
              RRset. If the DNSKEY RRset is changed, then the zone is
              automatically re-signed with the new key set.

              This command requires that the zone be configured with a
              dnssec-policy, or that the auto-dnssec zone option be set to
              allow or maintain, and also requires the zone to be configured
              to allow dynamic DNS. (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the BIND
              9 Administrator Reference Manual for more details.)

              See also rndc loadkeys.

       signing [(-list | -clear keyid/algorithm | -clear all | -nsec3param (
       parameters | none ) | -serial value ) zone [class [view]]
              This command lists, edits, or removes the DNSSEC signing-state
              records for the specified zone. The status of ongoing DNSSEC
              operations, such as signing or generating NSEC3 chains, is
              stored in the zone in the form of DNS resource records of type
              sig-signing-type.  rndc signing -list converts these records
              into a human-readable form, indicating which keys are currently
              signing or have finished signing the zone, and which NSEC3
              chains are being created or removed.

              rndc signing -clear can remove a single key (specified in the
              same format that rndc signing -list uses to display it), or all
              keys. In either case, only completed keys are removed; any
              record indicating that a key has not yet finished signing the
              zone is retained.

              rndc signing -nsec3param sets the NSEC3 parameters for a zone.
              This is the only supported mechanism for using NSEC3 with
              inline-signing zones. Parameters are specified in the same
              format as an NSEC3PARAM resource record: hash algorithm, flags,
              iterations, and salt, in that order.

              Currently, the only defined value for hash algorithm is 1,
              representing SHA-1. The flags may be set to 0 or 1, depending on
              whether the opt-out bit in the NSEC3 chain should be set.
              iterations defines the number of additional times to apply the
              algorithm when generating an NSEC3 hash. The salt is a string of
              data expressed in hexadecimal, a hyphen (-') if no salt is to be
              used, or the keyword ``auto`, which causes named to generate a
              random 64-bit salt.

              So, for example, to create an NSEC3 chain using the SHA-1 hash
              algorithm, no opt-out flag, 10 iterations, and a salt value of
              "FFFF", use: rndc signing -nsec3param 1 0 10 FFFF zone. To set
              the opt-out flag, 15 iterations, and no salt, use: rndc signing
              -nsec3param 1 1 15 - zone.

              rndc signing -nsec3param none removes an existing NSEC3 chain
              and replaces it with NSEC.

              rndc signing -serial value sets the serial number of the zone to
              value. If the value would cause the serial number to go
              backwards, it is rejected. The primary use of this parameter is
              to set the serial number on inline signed zones.

       stats  This command writes server statistics to the statistics file.
              (See the statistics-file option in the BIND 9 Administrator
              Reference Manual.)

       status This command displays the status of the server. Note that the
              number of zones includes the internal bind/CH zone and the
              default ./IN hint zone, if there is no explicit root zone
              configured.

       stop -p
              This command stops the server, making sure any recent changes
              made through dynamic update or IXFR are first saved to the
              master files of the updated zones. If -p is specified,
              named(8)`'s process ID is returned.  This allows an external
              process to determine when ``named has completed stopping.

              See also rndc halt.

       sync -clean [zone [class [view]]]
              This command syncs changes in the journal file for a dynamic
              zone to the master file. If the "-clean" option is specified,
              the journal file is also removed. If no zone is specified, then
              all zones are synced.

       tcp-timeouts [initial idle keepalive advertised]
              When called without arguments, this command displays the current
              values of the tcp-initial-timeout, tcp-idle-timeout,
              tcp-keepalive-timeout, and tcp-advertised-timeout options.  When
              called with arguments, these values are updated. This allows an
              administrator to make rapid adjustments when under a
              denial-of-service (DoS) attack. See the descriptions of these
              options in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual for details
              of their use.

       thaw [zone [class [view]]]
              This command enables updates to a frozen dynamic zone. If no
              zone is specified, then all frozen zones are enabled. This
              causes the server to reload the zone from disk, and re-enables
              dynamic updates after the load has completed. After a zone is
              thawed, dynamic updates are no longer refused. If the zone has
              changed and the ixfr-from-differences option is in use, the
              journal file is updated to reflect changes in the zone.
              Otherwise, if the zone has changed, any existing journal file is
              removed.

              See also rndc freeze.

       trace  This command increments the server's debugging level by one.

       trace level
              This command sets the server's debugging level to an explicit
              value.

              See also rndc notrace.

       tsig-delete keyname [view]
              This command deletes a given TKEY-negotiated key from the
              server. This does not apply to statically configured TSIG keys.

       tsig-list
              This command lists the names of all TSIG keys currently
              configured for use by named in each view. The list includes both
              statically configured keys and dynamic TKEY-negotiated keys.

       validation (on | off | status) [view ...]``
              This command enables, disables, or checks the current status of
              DNSSEC validation. By default, validation is enabled.

              The cache is flushed when validation is turned on or off to
              avoid using data that might differ between states.

       zonestatus zone [class [view]]
              This command displays the current status of the given zone,
              including the master file name and any include files from which
              it was loaded, when it was most recently loaded, the current
              serial number, the number of nodes, whether the zone supports
              dynamic updates, whether the zone is DNSSEC signed, whether it
              uses automatic DNSSEC key management or inline signing, and the
              scheduled refresh or expiry times for the zone.

              See also rndc showzone.

       rndc commands that specify zone names, such as reload, retransfer, or
       zonestatus, can be ambiguous when applied to zones of type redirect.
       Redirect zones are always called ., and can be confused with zones of
       type hint or with secondary copies of the root zone. To specify a
       redirect zone, use the special zone name -redirect, without a trailing
       period. (With a trailing period, this would specify a zone called
       "-redirect".)

LIMITATIONS
       There is currently no way to provide the shared secret for a key_id
       without using the configuration file.

       Several error messages could be clearer.

SEE ALSO
       rndc.conf(5), rndc-confgen(8), named(8), named.conf(5), ndc(8), BIND 9
       Administrator Reference Manual.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2021, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.12                                                                RNDC(8)