Updated: 2022/Sep/29

Please read Privacy Policy. It's for your privacy.

SQLITE3_CREATE_FUNCTION(3)                            Library Functions Manual

     sqlite3_create_function, sqlite3_create_function16,
     sqlite3_create_function_v2, sqlite3_create_window_function - create or
     redefine SQL functions

     #include <sqlite3.h>

     sqlite3_create_function(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFunctionName, int nArg,
         int eTextRep, void *pApp,
         void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*));

     sqlite3_create_function16(sqlite3 *db, const void *zFunctionName,
         int nArg, int eTextRep, void *pApp,
         void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*));

     sqlite3_create_function_v2(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFunctionName,
         int nArg, int eTextRep, void *pApp,
         void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*), void(*xDestroy)(void*));

     sqlite3_create_window_function(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFunctionName,
         int nArg, int eTextRep, void *pApp,
         void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
         void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*), void (*xValue)(sqlite3_context*),
         void (*xInverse)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),

     These functions (collectively known as "function creation routines") are
     used to add SQL functions or aggregates or to redefine the behavior of
     existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The only differences between the
     three "sqlite3_create_function*" routines are the text encoding expected
     for the second parameter (the name of the function being created) and the
     presence or absence of a destructor callback for the application data
     pointer.  Function sqlite3_create_window_function() is similar, but
     allows the user to supply the extra callback functions needed by
     aggregate window functions.

     The first parameter is the database connection to which the SQL function
     is to be added.  If an application uses more than one database connection
     then application-defined SQL functions must be added to each database
     connection separately.

     The second parameter is the name of the SQL function to be created or
     redefined.  The length of the name is limited to 255 bytes in a UTF-8
     representation, exclusive of the zero-terminator.  Note that the name
     length limit is in UTF-8 bytes, not characters nor UTF-16 bytes.  Any
     attempt to create a function with a longer name will result in
     SQLITE_MISUSE being returned.

     The third parameter (nArg) is the number of arguments that the SQL
     function or aggregate takes.  If this parameter is -1, then the SQL
     function or aggregate may take any number of arguments between 0 and the
     limit set by sqlite3_limit(SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG).  If the third
     parameter is less than -1 or greater than 127 then the behavior is

     The fourth parameter, eTextRep, specifies what text encoding this SQL
     function prefers for its parameters.  The application should set this
     parameter to SQLITE_UTF16LE if the function implementation invokes
     sqlite3_value_text16le() on an input, or SQLITE_UTF16BE if the
     implementation invokes sqlite3_value_text16be() on an input, or
     SQLITE_UTF16 if sqlite3_value_text16() is used, or SQLITE_UTF8 otherwise.
     The same SQL function may be registered multiple times using different
     preferred text encodings, with different implementations for each
     encoding.  When multiple implementations of the same function are
     available, SQLite will pick the one that involves the least amount of
     data conversion.

     The fourth parameter may optionally be ORed with SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC to
     signal that the function will always return the same result given the
     same inputs within a single SQL statement.  Most SQL functions are
     deterministic.  The built-in random() SQL function is an example of a
     function that is not deterministic.  The SQLite query planner is able to
     perform additional optimizations on deterministic functions, so use of
     the SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC flag is recommended where possible.

     The fourth parameter may also optionally include the SQLITE_DIRECTONLY
     flag, which if present prevents the function from being invoked from
     within VIEWs, TRIGGERs, CHECK constraints, generated column expressions,
     index expressions, or the WHERE clause of partial indexes.

     For best security, the SQLITE_DIRECTONLY flag is recommended for all
     application-defined SQL functions that do not need to be used inside of
     triggers, view, CHECK constraints, or other elements of the database
     schema.  This flags is especially recommended for SQL functions that have
     side effects or reveal internal application state.  Without this flag, an
     attacker might be able to modify the schema of a database file to include
     invocations of the function with parameters chosen by the attacker, which
     the application will then execute when the database file is opened and

     The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer.  The implementation of the
     function can gain access to this pointer using sqlite3_user_data().  The
     sixth, seventh and eighth parameters passed to the three
     "sqlite3_create_function*" functions, xFunc, xStep and xFinal, are
     pointers to C-language functions that implement the SQL function or
     aggregate.  A scalar SQL function requires an implementation of the xFunc
     callback only; NULL pointers must be passed as the xStep and xFinal
     parameters.  An aggregate SQL function requires an implementation of
     xStep and xFinal and NULL pointer must be passed for xFunc.  To delete an
     existing SQL function or aggregate, pass NULL pointers for all three
     function callbacks.

     The sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth parameters (xStep, xFinal, xValue
     and xInverse) passed to sqlite3_create_window_function are pointers to C-
     language callbacks that implement the new function.  xStep and xFinal
     must both be non-NULL.  xValue and xInverse may either both be NULL, in
     which case a regular aggregate function is created, or must both be non-
     NULL, in which case the new function may be used as either an aggregate
     or aggregate window function.  More details regarding the implementation
     of aggregate window functions are available here.

     If the final parameter to sqlite3_create_function_v2() or
     sqlite3_create_window_function() is not NULL, then it is destructor for
     the application data pointer.  The destructor is invoked when the
     function is deleted, either by being overloaded or when the database
     connection closes.  The destructor is also invoked if the call to
     sqlite3_create_function_v2() fails.  When the destructor callback is
     invoked, it is passed a single argument which is a copy of the
     application data pointer which was the fifth parameter to

     It is permitted to register multiple implementations of the same
     functions with the same name but with either differing numbers of
     arguments or differing preferred text encodings.  SQLite will use the
     implementation that most closely matches the way in which the SQL
     function is used.  A function implementation with a non-negative nArg
     parameter is a better match than a function implementation with a
     negative nArg.  A function where the preferred text encoding matches the
     database encoding is a better match than a function where the encoding is
     different.  A function where the encoding difference is between UTF16le
     and UTF16be is a closer match than a function where the encoding
     difference is between UTF8 and UTF16.

     Built-in functions may be overloaded by new application-defined

     An application-defined function is permitted to call other SQLite
     interfaces.  However, such calls must not close the database connection
     nor finalize or reset the prepared statement in which the function is

     These declarations were extracted from the interface documentation at
     line 5329.

     SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function(
       sqlite3 *db,
       const char *zFunctionName,
       int nArg,
       int eTextRep,
       void *pApp,
       void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
     SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function16(
       sqlite3 *db,
       const void *zFunctionName,
       int nArg,
       int eTextRep,
       void *pApp,
       void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
     SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function_v2(
       sqlite3 *db,
       const char *zFunctionName,
       int nArg,
       int eTextRep,
       void *pApp,
       void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*),
     SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_window_function(
       sqlite3 *db,
       const char *zFunctionName,
       int nArg,
       int eTextRep,
       void *pApp,
       void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
       void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*),
       void (*xValue)(sqlite3_context*),
       void (*xInverse)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),

     sqlite3(3), sqlite3_limit(3), sqlite3_user_data(3),
     sqlite3_value_blob(3), SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC(3), SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH(3),

NetBSD 10.99                    August 24, 2023                   NetBSD 10.99