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TROFF(1)                    General Commands Manual                   TROFF(1)



NAME
       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -d ] [ -f ] [ -F ] [ -I ] [ -m ] [ -M ] [ -n ]
       [ -o ] [ -r ] [ -T ] [ -w ] [ -W ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it
       should be invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run
       preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.

OPTIONS
       -a     Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b     Print a backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
              backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
              line numbers given in the backtrace may not always be correct,
              for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or am
              requests.

       -c     Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C     Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs   -dname=s Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one
              letter name.

       -E     Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't
              affect messages output to standard error by macro packages using
              the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam  Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir  Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories
              devname (name is the name of the device) and there for the DESC
              file and font files.  dir is scanned before all other font
              directories.

       -i     Read the standard input after all the named input files have
              been processed.

       -Idir  This option may be used to specify a directory to search for
              files (both those on the command line and those named in .psbb
              requests).  The current directory is always searched first.
              This option may be specified more than once; the directories
              will be searched in the order specified.  No directory search is
              performed for files specified using an absolute path.

       -mname Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try tmac.name
              instead.  It will be first searched for in directories given
              with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
              the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
              directory (only if in unsafe mode), the home directory,
              /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir  Search directory (or directory path) dir for macro files.  This
              is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum  Number the first page num.

       -olist Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
              page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
              between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means
              print every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
              last page in the list.

       -rcn   -rname=n Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one
              character name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R     Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps; see
              groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open,
              opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons, these potentially
              dangerous requests are disabled otherwise.  It will also add the
              current directory to the macro search path.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -wname Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
              section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
              use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z     Suppress formatted output.

WARNINGS
       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following
       categories.  The name associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the warn request, and by the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

       Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning
       ---------------------+----------------------------
         0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg
         1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab
         2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace
         3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing
         4     16   el      |  14    16384   input
         5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape
         6     64   range   |  16    65536   space
         7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font
         8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig
         9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color

       break     4
              In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their
              length was less than the line length.  This is enabled by
              default.

       char 1 Non-existent characters.  This is enabled by default.

       color     524288
              Color related warnings.

       delim     8
              Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di   256
              Use of di or da without an argument when there is no current
              diversion.

       el   16
              Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape    32768
              Unrecognized escape sequences.  When an unrecognized escape
              sequence is encountered, the escape character is ignored.

       font 131072
              Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig   262144
              Invalid escapes in text ignored with the ig request.  These are
              conditions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored
              text.

       input     16384
              Invalid input characters.

       mac  512
              Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions.  When an
              undefined string, macro or diversion is used, that string is
              automatically defined as empty.  So, in most cases, at most one
              warning will be given for each name.

       missing   8192
              Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number    2
              Invalid numeric expressions.  This is enabled by default.

       range     64
              Out of range arguments.

       reg  1024
              Use of undefined number registers.  When an undefined number
              register is used, that register is automatically defined to have
              a value of 0.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will be
              given for use of a particular name.

       right-brace    4096
              Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale     32
              Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space     65536
              Missing space between a request or macro and its argument.  This
              warning will be given when an undefined name longer than two
              characters is encountered, and the first two characters of the
              name make a defined name.  The request or macro will not be
              invoked.  When this warning is given, no macro is automatically
              defined.  This is enabled by default.  This warning will never
              occur in compatibility mode.

       syntax    128
              Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab  2048
              Inappropriate use of a tab character.  Either use of a tab
              character where a number was expected, or use of tab character
              in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
              covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro
              packages.

       w      All warnings.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before these, and in standard directories (current directory if
              in unsafe mode, home directory, /usr/share/tmac,
              /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
              Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
              option before these, and in standard directories
              (/usr/share/groff_font, /usr/share/groff_font,
              /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

FILES
       :((0u+3n)*2u>(0u-0u)) .TP /usr/share/tmac/troffrc Initialization file
       (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/tmac/troffrc-end
              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/tmac/name.tmac
              /usr/share/tmac/tmac.name Macro files

       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/DESC
              Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/F
              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U option is given).  Use the -M command line option or the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories to the
       search path if necessary.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have received
       a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       This document was written by James Clark, with modifications from and

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

       groff(7)
              A description of the groff language, including a short but
              complete reference of all predefined requests, registers, and
              escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this is called
              by

                     man 7 groff

       groff_diff(7)
              The differences of the groff language and the classical troff
              language.  Currently, this is the most actual document of the
              groff system.

       roff(7)
              An overview over groff and other roff systems, including
              pointers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf. info(1), presents all groff documentation
       within a single document.



Groff Version 1.19.2             July 30, 2004                        TROFF(1)