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TROFF(1)                    General Commands Manual                   TROFF(1)



NAME
       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

SYNOPSIS
             troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ]
             [ -mname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ]
             [ -wname ] [ -Wname ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it
       should be invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run
       preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.

OPTIONS
       -a      Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b      Print a backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
               backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
               line numbers given in the backtrace may not always be correct,
               for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or am
               requests.

       -c      Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C      Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs

       -dname=s
               Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one letter name.

       -E      Inhibit all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't
               affect messages output to standard error by macro packages
               using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam   Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir   Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories
               devname (name is the name of the device) and there for the DESC
               file and font files.  dir is scanned before all other font
               directories.

       -i      Read the standard input after all the named input files have
               been processed.

       -Idir   This option may be used to specify a directory to search for
               files (both those on the command line and those named in .psbb
               requests).  The current directory is always searched first.
               This option may be specified more than once; the directories
               will be searched in the order specified.  No directory search
               is performed for files specified using an absolute path.

       -mname  Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try tmac.name
               instead.  It will be first searched for in directories given
               with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
               the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
               directory (only if in unsafe mode), the home directory,
               /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir   Search directory (or directory path) dir for macro files.  This
               is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum   Number the first page num.

       -olist  Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
               page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
               between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means
               print every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
               last page in the list.

       -rcn

       -rname=n
               Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
               name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R      Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname  Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps; see
               groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U      Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open,
               opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons, these
               potentially dangerous requests are disabled otherwise.  It will
               also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v      Print the version number.

       -wname  Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
               section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
               use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname  Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z      Suppress formatted output.

WARNINGS
       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following
       categories.  The name associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the warn request, and by the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

                 +---------------------+----------------------------+
                 |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning   |
                 +---------------------+----------------------------+
                 |  0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg         |
                 |  1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab         |
                 |  2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace |
                 |  3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing     |
                 |  4     16   el      |  14    16384   input       |
                 |  5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape      |
                 |  6     64   range   |  16    65536   space       |
                 |  7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font        |
                 |  8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig          |
                 |  9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color       |
                 +---------------------+----------------------------+
       break     4      In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that
                        their length was less than the line length.  This is
                        enabled by default.

       char 1           Non-existent characters.  This is enabled by default.

       color     524288 Color related warnings.

       delim     8      Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di   256         Use of di or da without an argument when there is no
                        current diversion.

       el   16          Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape    32768  Unrecognized escape sequences.  When an unrecognized
                        escape sequence is encountered, the escape character
                        is ignored.

       font 131072      Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig   262144      Invalid escapes in text ignored with the ig request.
                        These are conditions that are errors when they do not
                        occur in ignored text.

       input     16384  Invalid input characters.

       mac  512         Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions.  When
                        an undefined string, macro or diversion is used, that
                        string is automatically defined as empty.  So, in most
                        cases, at most one warning will be given for each
                        name.

       missing   8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number    2      Invalid numeric expressions.  This is enabled by
                        default.

       range     64     Out of range arguments.

       reg  1024        Use of undefined number registers.  When an undefined
                        number register is used, that register is
                        automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in
                        most cases, at most one warning will be given for use
                        of a particular name.

       right-brace    4096
                        Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale     32     Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space     65536  Missing space between a request or macro and its
                        argument.  This warning will be given when an
                        undefined name longer than two characters is
                        encountered, and the first two characters of the name
                        make a defined name.  The request or macro will not be
                        invoked.  When this warning is given, no macro is
                        automatically defined.  This is enabled by default.
                        This warning will never occur in compatibility mode.

       syntax    128    Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab  2048        Inappropriate use of a tab character.  Either use of a
                        tab character where a number was expected, or use of
                        tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
              covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro
              packages.

       w      All warnings.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before these, and in standard directories (current directory if
              in unsafe mode, home directory, /usr/share/tmac,
              /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
              Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
              option before these, and in standard directories
              (/usr/share/groff_font, /usr/share/groff_font,
              /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

FILES
       /usr/share/tmac/troffrc
              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/tmac/troffrc-end
              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/tmac/name.tmac

       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.name
              Macro files

       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/DESC
              Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/F
              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U option is given).  Use the -M command line option or the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories to the
       search path if necessary.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have received
       a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       This document was written by James Clark, with modifications from and

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

       groff(7)
              A description of the groff language, including a short but
              complete reference of all predefined requests, registers, and
              escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this is called
              by

                     man 7 groff

       groff_diff(7)
              The differences of the groff language and the classical troff
              language.  Currently, this is the most actual document of the
              groff system.

       roff(7)
              An overview over groff and other roff systems, including
              pointers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf. info(1), presents all groff documentation
       within a single document.



Groff Version 1.19.2           September 4, 2005                      TROFF(1)