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WRITE(2)                      System Calls Manual                     WRITE(2)

     write, writev, pwrite, pwritev - write output

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <unistd.h>

     write(int d, const void *buf, size_t nbytes);

     pwrite(int d, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, off_t offset);

     #include <sys/uio.h>

     writev(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt);

     pwritev(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt, off_t offset);

     write() attempts to write nbytes of data to the object referenced by the
     descriptor d from the buffer pointed to by buf.  writev() performs the
     same action, but gathers the output data from the iovcnt buffers
     specified by the members of the iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ...,
     iov[iovcnt-1].  pwrite() and pwritev() perform the same functions, but
     write to the specified position in the file without modifying the file

     For writev() and pwritev(), the iovec structure is defined as:

           struct iovec {
                   void *iov_base;
                   size_t iov_len;

     Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in
     memory from which data should be written.  writev() and pwritev() will
     always write a complete area before proceeding to the next.

     On objects capable of seeking, the write() starts at a position given by
     the pointer associated with d (see lseek(2)).  Upon return from write(),
     the pointer is incremented by the number of bytes which were written.

     Objects that are not capable of seeking always write from the current
     position.  The value of the pointer associated with such an object is

     If the real user is not the super-user, then write() clears the set-user-
     id bit on the file.  This prevents penetration of system security by a
     user who "captures" a writable set-user-id file owned by the super-user.

     If write() succeeds it will update the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of
     the file's meta-data (see stat(2)).

     When using non-blocking I/O on objects such as sockets that are subject
     to flow control, write() and writev() may write fewer bytes than
     requested; the return value must be noted, and the remainder of the
     operation should be retried when possible.

     Upon successful completion the number of bytes which were written is
     returned.  Otherwise -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set
     to indicate the error.

     write(), writev(), pwrite(), and pwritev() will fail and the file pointer
     will remain unchanged if:

     [EAGAIN]           The file was marked for non-blocking I/O, and no data
                        could be written immediately.

     [EBADF]            d is not a valid descriptor open for writing.

     [EDQUOT]           The user's quota of disk blocks on the file system
                        containing the file has been exhausted.

     [EFAULT]           Part of iov or data to be written to the file points
                        outside the process's allocated address space.

     [EFBIG]            An attempt was made to write a file that exceeds the
                        process's file size limit or the maximum file size.

     [EINTR]            A signal was received before any data could be written
                        to a slow device.  See sigaction(2) for more
                        information on the interaction between signals and
                        system calls.

     [EINVAL]           The pointer associated with d was negative; or the
                        total length of the I/O is more than can be expressed
                        by the ssize_t return value.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
                        the file system.

     [ENOSPC]           There is no free space remaining on the file system
                        containing the file.

     [EPIPE]            An attempt is made to write to a pipe that is not open
                        for reading by any process; or an attempt is made to
                        write to a socket of type SOCK_STREAM that is not
                        connected to a peer socket.

     In addition, writev() and pwritev() may return one of the following

     [EINVAL]           iovcnt was less than or equal to 0, or greater than
                        {IOV_MAX}; or one of the iov_len values in the iov
                        array was negative; or the sum of the iov_len values
                        in the iov array overflowed a 32-bit integer.

     The pwrite() and pwritev() calls may also return the following errors:

     [EINVAL]           The specified file offset is invalid.

     [ESPIPE]           The file descriptor is associated with a pipe, socket,
                        or FIFO.

     fcntl(2), lseek(2), open(2), pipe(2), poll(2), select(2), sigaction(2)

     The write() function is expected to conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988
     ("POSIX.1").  The writev() and pwrite() functions conform to X/Open
     Portability Guide Issue 4, Version 2 ("XPG4.2").

     The pwritev() function call appeared in NetBSD 1.4.  The pwrite()
     function call appeared in AT&T System V Release 4 UNIX.  The writev()
     function call appeared in 4.2BSD.  The write() function call appeared in
     Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

     Error checks should explicitly test for -1.  Code such as

             while ((nr = write(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) > 0)

     is not maximally portable, as some platforms allow for nbytes to range
     between SSIZE_MAX and SIZE_MAX - 2, in which case the return value of an
     error-free write() may appear as a negative number distinct from -1.
     Proper loops should use

             while ((nr = write(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) != -1 && nr != 0)

NetBSD 10.99                   September 2, 2019                  NetBSD 10.99