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CI(1)                       General Commands Manual                      CI(1)

       ci - check in RCS revisions

       ci [options] file ...

       ci stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be
       working files containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of
       each working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a working
       file is given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS
       subdirectory and then in the working file's directory.  For more
       details, see FILE NAMING below.

       For ci to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner
       of the file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip
       revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise, only
       a new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).  A lock
       held by someone else can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless the -f option is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
       deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of creating
       a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.  To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps and ci -u removes
       any lock, and then they both generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or co -u had been applied to the preceding revision.  When
       reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For each revision deposited, ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize the change and must be terminated by end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the standard
       input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also -m.

       If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the log message, ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The number rev of the deposited revision can be given by any of the
       options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.  rev can be
       symbolic, numeric, or mixed.  Symbolic names in rev must already be
       defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during checkin.
       If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in
       the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then the default branch (normally the
       trunk) is prepended to it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
       period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on
       the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If rev is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
       appended to that branch.  The level number is obtained by incrementing
       the tip revision number of that branch.  If rev indicates a non-
       existing branch, that branch is created with the initial revision
       numbered rev.1.

       If rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller's last lock.  If the caller has locked the tip revision of a
       branch, the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip revision number.  If the
       caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that
       revision by incrementing the highest branch number at that revision.
       The default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

       If rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the revision is appended to the
       default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not

       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning
              in ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the
              most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a bare
              -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releasing a lock
              and removing the working file, and is used to override any
              default -l or -u options established by shell aliases or

              works like -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the
              deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
              checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a
              revision although one wants to continue editing it after the

              works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
              This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

              The -l, bare -r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and
              silently override each other.  For example, ci -u -r is
              equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

              forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
              different from the preceding one.

              searches the working file for keyword values to determine its
              revision number, creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
              and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather than
              computing them locally.  It also generates a default login
              message noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin
              date.  This option is useful for software distribution.  A
              revision that is sent to several sites should be checked in with
              the -k option at these sites to preserve the original number,
              date, author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the
              default log message can be overridden with the options -d, -m,
              -s, -w, and any option that carries a revision number.

              quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A revision that
              is not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless
              -f is given.

              initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
              This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

              just checkin and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS
              file does not already exist.

              interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if
              the standard input is not a terminal.

              uses date for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified
              in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for lying
              about the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
              date is empty, the working file's time of last modification is

              Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
              of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does not
              alter f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to
              keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse

       -mmsg  uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
              in.  By convention, log messages that start with # are comments
              and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's vc package.  Also,
              log messages that start with {clumpname} (followed by white
              space) are meant to be clumped together if possible, even if
              they are associated with different files; the {clumpname} label
              is used only for clumping, and is not considered to be part of
              the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in
              revision.  ci prints an error message if name is already
              assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of

              sets the state of the checked-in revision to the identifier
              state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
              the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin
              with -.

              Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file,
              deleting the existing text.

              The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an
              initial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

              During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the
              text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
              containing . by itself.  The user is prompted for the text if
              interaction is possible; see -I.

              For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
              option is ignored.

       -T     Set the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time
              if the former precedes the latter and there is a new revision;
              preserve the RCS file's modification time otherwise.  If you
              have locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's
              modification time to the current time, because the lock is
              stored in the RCS file and removing the lock requires changing
              the RCS file.  This can create an RCS file newer than the
              working file in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create a
              working file with a date before the current time; second, when
              reverting to the previous revision the RCS file can change while
              the working file remains unchanged.  These two cases can cause
              excessive recompilation caused by a make(1) dependency of the
              working file on the RCS file.  The -T option inhibits this
              recompilation by lying about the RCS file's date.  Use this
              option with care; it can suppress recompilation even when a
              checkin of one working file should affect another working file
              associated with the same RCS file.  For example, suppose the RCS
              file's time is 01:00, the (changed) working file's time is
              02:00, some other copy of the working file has a time of 03:00,
              and the current time is 04:00.  Then ci -d -T sets the RCS
              file's time to 02:00 instead of the usual 04:00; this causes
              make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the other copy is newer than
              the RCS file.

              uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.
              Useful for lying about the author, and for -k if no author is

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

              specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
              any pathname ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
              pathname of the form RCS/path or path1/RCS/path2.  The -x option
              can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For example,
              -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.  If two
              or more suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when
              looking for an RCS file; the first one that works is used for
              that file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be
              created, the suffixes are tried in order to determine the new
              RCS file's name.  The default for suffixes is installation-
              dependent; normally it is ,v/ for hosts like UNIX that permit
              commas in filenames, and is empty (i.e. just the empty suffix)
              for other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and
              specifies the default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
              The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or the special
              string LT for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
              uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone
              indication and with slashes separating the parts of the date;
              otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format with time zone
              indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
              Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
              output as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

              The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
              are always UTC.

       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be specified in three ways
       (see also the example section).

       1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname
       is of the form path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the form
       path2/workfile where path1/ and path2/ are (possibly different or
       empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS suffix.  If X is
       empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file
       by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if
       the former is not found and X is nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for
       the RCS file first in the directory ./RCS and then in the current

       ci reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an
       unusual reason, even if the RCS file's pathname is just one of several
       possibilities.  For example, to suppress use of RCS commands in a
       directory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that casual attempts
       to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a
       subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the following
       commands check in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest
       revision, removing io.c.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
              ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current
       directory contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
       of the following commands checks in a new revision.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c;
              ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

       An RCS file created by ci inherits the read and execute permissions
       from the working file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
       its read and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all write
       permissions of RCS files.

       Temporary files are created in the directory containing the working
       file, and also in the temporary directory (see TMPDIR under
       ENVIRONMENT).  A semaphore file or files are created in the directory
       containing the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the semaphore names
       begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify
       an suffix whose first character could be that of a working filename.
       With an empty suffix, the semaphore names end with _ so working
       filenames should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file
       and creates a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or more
       symbolic links to an RCS file, it unlinks the destination file instead.
       Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any working file it
       changes; and hard links to RCS files are ineffective, but symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The effective user must be able to search and write the directory
       containing the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to read
       the RCS and working files and to search and write the directory
       containing the working file; however, some older hosts cannot easily
       switch between real and effective users, so on these hosts the
       effective user is used for all accesses.  The effective user is the
       same as the real user unless your copies of ci and co have setuid
       privileges.  As described in the next section, these privileges yield
       extra security if the effective user owns all RCS files and
       directories, and if only the effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the
       directory containing the files; only users with write access to the
       directory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.  For example,
       in hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make a
       group's RCS directories writable to that group only.  This approach
       suffices for informal projects, but it means that any group member can
       arbitrarily change the group's RCS files, and can even remove them
       entirely.  Hence more formal projects sometimes distinguish between an
       RCS administrator, who can change the RCS files at will, and other
       project members, who can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise
       change the RCS files.

       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

        Check that the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult a trustworthy
        expert if there are any doubts.  It is best if the seteuid system call
        works as described in POSIX 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can switch
        back and forth easily between real and effective users, even if the
        real user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid system
        call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of POSIX
        1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user is root.
        If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       ⊕ Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.
         Only A can invoke the rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A should
         not be root or any other user with special powers.  Mutually
         suspicious sets of users should use different administrators.

       ⊕ Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by the

       ⊕ Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A
         by copying the commands from their standard installation directory D
         as follows:

              mkdir  B
              cp  D/c[io]  B
              chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       ⊕ Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

              PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
              set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       ⊕ Have A create each RCS directory R with write access only to A as

              mkdir  R
              chmod  go-w  R

       ⊕ If you want to let only certain users read the RCS files, put the
         users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory as

              chgrp  G  R
              chmod  g-w,o-rwx  R

       ⊕ Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns

       ⊕ An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.
         The default access list is empty, which grants checkin access to
         anyone who can read the RCS file.  If you want limit checkin access,
         have A invoke rcs -a on the file; see rcs(1).  In particular,
         rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       ⊕ Have A initialize any new RCS files with rcs -i before initial
         checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

       ⊕ Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them
         to rcs or to any other command.

       ⊕ Do not use other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is
         trickier than you think!

              options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A
              backslash escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT options
              are prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.
              Useful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
              variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
              found is taken; if none of them are set, a host-dependent
              default is used, typically /tmp.

       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the
       number of both the deposited and the preceding revision.  The exit
       status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.17; Release Date: 1995/06/16.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.

       co(1), emacs(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1),
       rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
       Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

GNU                               1995/06/16                             CI(1)