Updated: 2021/Apr/14


DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)                    BIND 9                    DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)



NAME
       dnssec-keygen - DNSSEC key generation tool

SYNOPSIS
       dnssec-keygen [-3] [-A date/offset] [-a algorithm] [-b keysize] [-C]
       [-c class] [-D date/offset] [-d bits] [-D sync date/offset] [-E engine]
       [-f flag] [-G] [-g generator] [-h] [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-K
       directory] [-k policy] [-L ttl] [-l file] [-n nametype] [-P
       date/offset] [-P sync date/offset] [-p protocol] [-q] [-R date/offset]
       [-S key] [-s strength] [-T rrtype] [-t type] [-V] [-v level] {name}

DESCRIPTION
       dnssec-keygen generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC
       2535 and RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for use with TSIG
       (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY (Transaction
       Key) as defined in RFC 2930.

       The name of the key is specified on the command line. For DNSSEC keys,
       this must match the name of the zone for which the key is being
       generated.

       The dnssec-keymgr command acts as a wrapper around dnssec-keygen,
       generating and updating keys as needed to enforce defined security
       policies such as key rollover scheduling. Using dnssec-keymgr may be
       preferable to direct use of dnssec-keygen.

OPTIONS

       -3     This option uses an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC
              key. If this option is used with an algorithm that has both NSEC
              and NSEC3 versions, then the NSEC3 version is selected; for
              example, dnssec-keygen -3a RSASHA1 specifies the NSEC3RSASHA1
              algorithm.

       -a algorithm
              This option selects the cryptographic algorithm. For DNSSEC
              keys, the value of algorithm must be one of RSASHA1,
              NSEC3RSASHA1, RSASHA256, RSASHA512, ECDSAP256SHA256,
              ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519, or ED448. For TKEY, the value must be
              DH (Diffie-Hellman); specifying this value automatically sets
              the -T KEY option as well.

              These values are case-insensitive. In some cases, abbreviations
              are supported, such as ECDSA256 for ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSA384
              for ECDSAP384SHA384. If RSASHA1 is specified along with the -3
              option, NSEC3RSASHA1 is used instead.

              This parameter must be specified except when using the -S
              option, which copies the algorithm from the predecessor key.

              In prior releases, HMAC algorithms could be generated for use as
              TSIG keys, but that feature was removed in BIND 9.13.0. Use
              tsig-keygen to generate TSIG keys.

       -b keysize
              This option specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice
              of key size depends on the algorithm used: RSA keys must be
              between 1024 and 4096 bits; Diffie-Hellman keys must be between
              128 and 4096 bits. Elliptic curve algorithms do not need this
              parameter.

              If the key size is not specified, some algorithms have
              pre-defined defaults. For example, RSA keys for use as DNSSEC
              zone-signing keys have a default size of 1024 bits; RSA keys for
              use as key-signing keys (KSKs, generated with -f KSK) default to
              2048 bits.

       -C     This option enables compatibility mode, which generates an
              old-style key, without any timing metadata. By default,
              dnssec-keygen includes the key's creation date in the metadata
              stored with the private key; other dates may be set there as
              well, including publication date, activation date, etc. Keys
              that include this data may be incompatible with older versions
              of BIND; the -C option suppresses them.

       -c class
              This option indicates that the DNS record containing the key
              should have the specified class. If not specified, class IN is
              used.

       -d bits
              This option specifies the key size in bits. For the algorithms
              RSASHA1, NSEC3RSASA1, RSASHA256, and RSASHA512 the key size must
              be between 1024 and 4096 bits; DH size is between 128 and 4096
              bits. This option is ignored for algorithms ECDSAP256SHA256,
              ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519, and ED448.

       -E engine
              This option specifies the cryptographic hardware to use, when
              applicable.

              When BIND 9 is built with OpenSSL, this needs to be set to the
              OpenSSL engine identifier that drives the cryptographic
              accelerator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11). When
              BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
              (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11
              provider library specified via --with-pkcs11.

       -f flag
              This option sets the specified flag in the flag field of the
              KEY/DNSKEY record.  The only recognized flags are KSK
              (Key-Signing Key) and REVOKE.

       -G     This option generates a key, but does not publish it or sign
              with it. This option is incompatible with -P and -A.

       -g generator
              This option indicates the generator to use if generating a
              Diffie-Hellman key. Allowed values are 2 and 5. If no generator
              is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 is used if possible;
              otherwise the default is 2.

       -h     This option prints a short summary of the options and arguments
              to dnssec-keygen.

       -K directory
              This option sets the directory in which the key files are to be
              written.

       -k policy
              This option creates keys for a specific dnssec-policy. If a
              policy uses multiple keys, dnssec-keygen generates multiple
              keys. This also creates a ".state" file to keep track of the key
              state.

              This option creates keys according to the dnssec-policy
              configuration, hence it cannot be used at the same time as many
              of the other options that dnssec-keygen provides.

       -L ttl This option sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is
              converted into a DNSKEY RR. This is the TTL used when the key is
              imported into a zone, unless there was already a DNSKEY RRset in
              place, in which case the existing TTL takes precedence. If this
              value is not set and there is no existing DNSKEY RRset, the TTL
              defaults to the SOA TTL. Setting the default TTL to 0 or none is
              the same as leaving it unset.

       -l file
              This option provides a configuration file that contains a
              dnssec-policy statement (matching the policy set with -k).

       -n nametype
              This option specifies the owner type of the key. The value of
              nametype must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC zone key
              (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with a host
              (KEY)), USER (for a key associated with a user (KEY)), or OTHER
              (DNSKEY). These values are case-insensitive. The default is ZONE
              for DNSKEY generation.

       -p protocol
              This option sets the protocol value for the generated key, for
              use with -T KEY. The protocol is a number between 0 and 255. The
              default is 3 (DNSSEC). Other possible values for this argument
              are listed in RFC 2535 and its successors.

       -q     This option sets quiet mode, which suppresses unnecessary
              output, including progress indication. Without this option, when
              dnssec-keygen is run interactively to generate an RSA or DSA key
              pair, it prints a string of symbols to stderr indicating the
              progress of the key generation. A . indicates that a random
              number has been found which passed an initial sieve test; +
              means a number has passed a single round of the Miller-Rabin
              primality test; and a space ( ) means that the number has passed
              all the tests and is a satisfactory key.

       -S key This option creates a new key which is an explicit successor to
              an existing key.  The name, algorithm, size, and type of the key
              are set to match the existing key. The activation date of the
              new key is set to the inactivation date of the existing one. The
              publication date is set to the activation date minus the
              prepublication interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -s strength
              This option specifies the strength value of the key. The
              strength is a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no
              defined purpose in DNSSEC.

       -T rrtype
              This option specifies the resource record type to use for the
              key. rrtype must be either DNSKEY or KEY. The default is DNSKEY
              when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be overridden to KEY
              for use with SIG(0).

       -t type
              This option indicates the type of the key for use with -T KEY.
              type must be one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The
              default is AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
              data, and CONF to the ability to encrypt data.

       -V     This option prints version information.

       -v level
              This option sets the debugging level.

TIMING OPTIONS
       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the
       argument begins with a + or -, it is interpreted as an offset from the
       present time. For convenience, if such an offset is followed by one of
       the suffixes y, mo, w, d, h, or mi, then the offset is computed in
       years (defined as 365 24-hour days, ignoring leap years), months
       (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
       respectively. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds. To
       explicitly prevent a date from being set, use none or never.

       -P date/offset
              This option sets the date on which a key is to be published to
              the zone. After that date, the key is included in the zone but
              is not used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not
              been used, the default is the current date.

       -P sync date/offset
              This option sets the date on which CDS and CDNSKEY records that
              match this key are to be published to the zone.

       -A date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be activated.
              After that date, the key is included in the zone and used to
              sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the
              default is the current date. If set, and -P is not set, the
              publication date is set to the activation date minus the
              prepublication interval.

       -R date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be revoked.
              After that date, the key is flagged as revoked. It is included
              in the zone and is used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be retired.
              After that date, the key is still included in the zone, but it
              is not used to sign it.

       -D date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be deleted.
              After that date, the key is no longer included in the zone.
              (However, it may remain in the key repository.)

       -D sync date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the CDS and CDNSKEY records
              that match this key are to be deleted.

       -i interval
              This option sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set,
              then the publication and activation dates must be separated by
              at least this much time. If the activation date is specified but
              the publication date is not, the publication date defaults to
              this much time before the activation date; conversely, if the
              publication date is specified but not the activation date,
              activation is set to this much time after publication.

              If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
              key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days;
              otherwise it is zero.

              As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the
              suffixes y, mo, w, d, h, or mi, the interval is measured in
              years, months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes, respectively.
              Without a suffix, the interval is measured in seconds.

GENERATED KEYS
       When dnssec-keygen completes successfully, it prints a string of the
       form Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii to the standard output. This is an identification
       string for the key it has generated.

       ⊕ nnnn is the key name.

       ⊕ aaa is the numeric representation of the algorithm.

       ⊕ iiiii is the key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keygen creates two files, with names based on the printed
       string. Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key contains the public key, and
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the private key.

       The .key file contains a DNSKEY or KEY record. When a zone is being
       signed by named or dnssec-signzone -S, DNSKEY records are included
       automatically. In other cases, the .key file can be inserted into a
       zone file manually or with an $INCLUDE statement.

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious
       security reasons, this file does not have general read permission.

EXAMPLE
       To generate an ECDSAP256SHA256 zone-signing key for the zone
       example.com, issue the command:

       dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 example.com

       The command prints a string of the form:

       Kexample.com.+013+26160

       In this example, dnssec-keygen creates the files
       Kexample.com.+013+26160.key and Kexample.com.+013+26160.private.

       To generate a matching key-signing key, issue the command:

       dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 -f KSK example.com

SEE ALSO
       dnssec-signzone(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2539,
       RFC 2845, RFC 4034.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2021, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.12                                                       DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)