Updated: 2021/Apr/14


DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)                  BIND 9                  DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)



NAME
       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-D] [-E engine] [-e
       end-time] [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-i interval] [-I input-format]
       [-j jitter] [-K directory] [-k key] [-L serial] [-M maxttl] [-N
       soa-serial-format] [-o origin] [-O output-format] [-P] [-Q] [-q] [-R]
       [-S] [-s start-time] [-T ttl] [-t] [-u] [-v level] [-V] [-X extended
       end-time] [-x] [-z] [-3 salt] [-H iterations] [-A] {zonefile} [key...]

DESCRIPTION
       dnssec-signzone signs a zone; it generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
       delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
       secure) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset file for
       each child zone.

OPTIONS

       -a     This option verifies all generated signatures.

       -c class
              This option specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -C     This option sets compatibility mode, in which a keyset-zonename
              file is generated in addition to dsset-zonename when signing a
              zone, for use by older versions of dnssec-signzone.

       -d directory
              This option indicates the directory where BIND 9 should look for
              dsset- or keyset- files.

       -D     This option indicates that only those record types automatically
              managed by dnssec-signzone, i.e., RRSIG, NSEC, NSEC3 and
              NSEC3PARAM records, should be included in the output.  If smart
              signing (-S) is used, DNSKEY records are also included.  The
              resulting file can be included in the original zone file with
              $INCLUDE. This option cannot be combined with -O raw, -O map, or
              serial-number updating.

       -E engine
              This option specifies the hardware to use for cryptographic
              operations, such as a secure key store used for signing, when
              applicable.

              When BIND 9 is built with OpenSSL, this needs to be set to the
              OpenSSL engine identifier that drives the cryptographic
              accelerator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11). When
              BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
              (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11
              provider library specified via --with-pkcs11.

       -g     This option indicates that DS records for child zones should be
              generated from a dsset- or keyset- file. Existing DS records are
              removed.

       -K directory
              This option specifies the directory to search for DNSSEC keys.
              If not specified, it defaults to the current directory.

       -k key This option tells BIND 9 to treat the specified key as a
              key-signing key, ignoring any key flags. This option may be
              specified multiple times.

       -M maxttl
              This option sets the maximum TTL for the signed zone. Any TTL
              higher than maxttl in the input zone is reduced to maxttl in the
              output. This provides certainty as to the largest possible TTL
              in the signed zone, which is useful to know when rolling keys.
              The maxttl is the longest possible time before signatures that
              have been retrieved by resolvers expire from resolver caches.
              Zones that are signed with this option should be configured to
              use a matching max-zone-ttl in named.conf. (Note: This option is
              incompatible with -D, because it modifies non-DNSSEC data in the
              output zone.)

       -s start-time
              This option specifies the date and time when the generated RRSIG
              records become valid. This can be either an absolute or relative
              time. An absolute start time is indicated by a number in
              YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on
              May 30th, 2000. A relative start time is indicated by +N, which
              is N seconds from the current time. If no start-time is
              specified, the current time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock
              skew) is used.

       -e end-time
              This option specifies the date and time when the generated RRSIG
              records expire. As with start-time, an absolute time is
              indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative to the
              start time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the
              start time. A time relative to the current time is indicated
              with now+N. If no end-time is specified, 30 days from the start
              time is the default.  end-time must be later than start-time.

       -X extended end-time
              This option specifies the date and time when the generated RRSIG
              records for the DNSKEY RRset expire. This is to be used in cases
              when the DNSKEY signatures need to persist longer than
              signatures on other records; e.g., when the private component of
              the KSK is kept offline and the KSK signature is to be refreshed
              manually.

              As with end-time, an absolute time is indicated in
              YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative to the start time is
              indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the start time. A
              time relative to the current time is indicated with now+N. If no
              extended end-time is specified, the value of end-time is used as
              the default. (end-time, in turn, defaults to 30 days from the
              start time.) extended end-time must be later than start-time.

       -f output-file
              This option indicates the name of the output file containing the
              signed zone. The default is to append .signed to the input
              filename. If output-file is set to -, then the signed zone is
              written to the standard output, with a default output format of
              full.

       -h     This option prints a short summary of the options and arguments
              to dnssec-signzone.

       -V     This option prints version information.

       -i interval
              This option indicates that, when a previously signed zone is
              passed as input, records may be re-signed. The interval option
              specifies the cycle interval as an offset from the current time,
              in seconds. If a RRSIG record expires after the cycle interval,
              it is retained; otherwise, it is considered to be expiring soon
              and it is replaced.

              The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference
              between the signature end and start times. So if neither
              end-time nor start-time is specified, dnssec-signzone generates
              signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of
              7.5 days. Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to
              expire in less than 7.5 days, they are replaced.

       -I input-format
              This option sets the format of the input zone file. Possible
              formats are text (the default), raw, and map. This option is
              primarily intended to be used for dynamic signed zones, so that
              the dumped zone file in a non-text format containing updates can
              be signed directly.  This option is not useful for non-dynamic
              zones.

       -j jitter
              When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
              records issued at the time of signing expire simultaneously. If
              the zone is incrementally signed, i.e., a previously signed zone
              is passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures must be
              regenerated at approximately the same time. The jitter option
              specifies a jitter window that is used to randomize the
              signature expire time, thus spreading incremental signature
              regeneration over time.

              Signature lifetime jitter also, to some extent, benefits
              validators and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e.,
              if large numbers of RRSIGs do not expire at the same time from
              all caches, there is less congestion than if all validators need
              to refetch at around the same time.

       -L serial
              When writing a signed zone to "raw" or "map" format, this option
              sets the "source serial" value in the header to the specified
              serial number. (This is expected to be used primarily for
              testing purposes.)

       -n ncpus
              This option specifies the number of threads to use. By default,
              one thread is started for each detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
              This option sets the SOA serial number format of the signed
              zone. Possible formats are keep (the default), increment,
              unixtime, and date.

              keep   This format indicates that the SOA serial number should
                     not be modified.

              increment
                     This format increments the SOA serial number using RFC
                     1982 arithmetic.

              unixtime
                     This format sets the SOA serial number to the number of
                     seconds since the beginning of the Unix epoch, unless the
                     serial number is already greater than or equal to that
                     value, in which case it is simply incremented by one.

              date   This format sets the SOA serial number to today's date,
                     in YYYYMMDDNN format, unless the serial number is already
                     greater than or equal to that value, in which case it is
                     simply incremented by one.

       -o origin
              This option sets the zone origin. If not specified, the name of
              the zone file is assumed to be the origin.

       -O output-format
              This option sets the format of the output file containing the
              signed zone. Possible formats are text (the default), which is
              the standard textual representation of the zone; full, which is
              text output in a format suitable for processing by external
              scripts; and map, raw, and raw=N, which store the zone in binary
              formats for rapid loading by named. raw=N specifies the format
              version of the raw zone file: if N is 0, the raw file can be
              read by any version of named; if N is 1, the file can be read by
              release 9.9.0 or higher. The default is 1.

       -P     This option disables post-sign verification tests.

              The post-sign verification tests ensure that for each algorithm
              in use there is at least one non-revoked self-signed KSK key,
              that all revoked KSK keys are self-signed, and that all records
              in the zone are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these
              tests.

       -Q     This option removes signatures from keys that are no longer
              active.

              Normally, when a previously signed zone is passed as input to
              the signer, and a DNSKEY record has been removed and replaced
              with a new one, signatures from the old key that are still
              within their validity period are retained. This allows the zone
              to continue to validate with cached copies of the old DNSKEY
              RRset. The -Q option forces dnssec-signzone to remove signatures
              from keys that are no longer active. This enables ZSK rollover
              using the procedure described in RFC 4641#4.2.1.1 ("Pre-Publish
              Key Rollover").

       -q     This option enables quiet mode, which suppresses unnecessary
              output. Without this option, when dnssec-signzone is run it
              prints three pieces of information to standard output: the
              number of keys in use; the algorithms used to verify the zone
              was signed correctly and other status information; and the
              filename containing the signed zone. With the option that output
              is suppressed, leaving only the filename.

       -R     This option removes signatures from keys that are no longer
              published.

              This option is similar to -Q, except it forces dnssec-signzone
              to remove signatures from keys that are no longer published.
              This enables ZSK rollover using the procedure described in RFC
              4641#4.2.1.2 ("Double Signature Zone Signing Key Rollover").

       -S     This option enables smart signing, which instructs
              dnssec-signzone to search the key repository for keys that match
              the zone being signed, and to include them in the zone if
              appropriate.

              When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to
              determine how it should be used, according to the following
              rules. Each successive rule takes priority over the prior ones:
                 If no timing metadata has been set for the key, the key is
                 published in the zone and used to sign the zone.

                 If the key's publication date is set and is in the past, the
                 key is published in the zone.

                 If the key's activation date is set and is in the past, the
                 key is published (regardless of publication date) and used to
                 sign the zone.

                 If the key's revocation date is set and is in the past, and
                 the key is published, then the key is revoked, and the
                 revoked key is used to sign the zone.

                 If either the key's unpublication or deletion date is set and
                 in the past, the key is NOT published or used to sign the
                 zone, regardless of any other metadata.

                 If the key's sync publication date is set and is in the past,
                 synchronization records (type CDS and/or CDNSKEY) are
                 created.

                 If the key's sync deletion date is set and is in the past,
                 synchronization records (type CDS and/or CDNSKEY) are
                 removed.

       -T ttl This option specifies a TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records
              imported into the zone from the key repository. If not
              specified, the default is the TTL value from the zone's SOA
              record. This option is ignored when signing without -S, since
              DNSKEY records are not imported from the key repository in that
              case. It is also ignored if there are any pre-existing DNSKEY
              records at the zone apex, in which case new records' TTL values
              are set to match them, or if any of the imported DNSKEY records
              had a default TTL value. In the event of a conflict between TTL
              values in imported keys, the shortest one is used.

       -t     This option prints statistics at completion.

       -u     This option updates the NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re-signing a
              previously signed zone.  With this option, a zone signed with
              NSEC can be switched to NSEC3, or a zone signed with NSEC3 can
              be switched to NSEC or to NSEC3 with different parameters.
              Without this option, dnssec-signzone retains the existing chain
              when re-signing.

       -v level
              This option sets the debugging level.

       -x     This option indicates that BIND 9 should only sign the DNSKEY,
              CDNSKEY, and CDS RRsets with key-signing keys, and should omit
              signatures from zone-signing keys. (This is similar to the
              dnssec-dnskey-kskonly yes; zone option in named.)

       -z     This option indicates that BIND 9 should ignore the KSK flag on
              keys when determining what to sign. This causes KSK-flagged keys
              to sign all records, not just the DNSKEY RRset.  (This is
              similar to the update-check-ksk no; zone option in named.)

       -3 salt
              This option generates an NSEC3 chain with the given hex-encoded
              salt. A dash (-) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be
              used when generating the NSEC3 chain.

       -H iterations
              This option indicates that, when generating an NSEC3 chain, BIND
              9 should use this many iterations. The default is 10.

       -A     This option indicates that, when generating an NSEC3 chain, BIND
              9 should set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3 records and should not
              generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.

              Using this option twice (i.e., -AA) turns the OPTOUT flag off
              for all records. This is useful when using the -u option to
              modify an NSEC3 chain which previously had OPTOUT set.

       zonefile
              This option sets the file containing the zone to be signed.

       key    This option specifies which keys should be used to sign the
              zone. If no keys are specified, the zone is examined for DNSKEY
              records at the zone apex. If these records are found and there
              are matching private keys in the current directory, they are
              used for signing.

EXAMPLE
       The following command signs the example.com zone with the
       ECDSAP256SHA256 key generated by dnssec-keygen
       (Kexample.com.+013+17247). Because the -S option is not being used, the
       zone's keys must be in the master file (db.example.com). This
       invocation looks for dsset files in the current directory, so that DS
       records can be imported from them (-g).

          % dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
          Kexample.com.+013+17247
          db.example.com.signed
          %

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
       db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in the named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.

          % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
          % dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
          db.example.com.signed
          %

SEE ALSO
       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 4033, RFC
       4641.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2021, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.12                                                     DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)