Updated: 2021/Apr/14


POSTSUPER(1)                General Commands Manual               POSTSUPER(1)




NAME
       postsuper - Postfix superintendent

SYNOPSIS
       postsuper [-psSv]
               [-c config_dir] [-d queue_id]
               [-e queue_id] [-f queue_id]
               [-h queue_id] [-H queue_id]
               [-r queue_id] [directory ...]

DESCRIPTION
       The postsuper(1) command does maintenance jobs on the Postfix queue.
       Use of the command is restricted to the superuser.  See the
       postqueue(1) command for unprivileged queue operations such as listing
       or flushing the mail queue.

       By default, postsuper(1) performs the operations requested with the -s
       and -p command-line options on all Postfix queue directories - this
       includes the incoming, active, deferred, and hold directories with
       message files and the bounce, defer, trace and flush directories with
       log files.

       Options:

       -c config_dir
              The main.cf configuration file is in the named directory instead
              of the default configuration directory. See also the MAIL_CONFIG
              environment setting below.

       -d queue_id
              Delete one message with the named queue ID from the named mail
              queue(s) (default: hold, incoming, active and deferred).

              To delete multiple files, specify the -d option multiple times,
              or specify a queue_id of - to read queue IDs from standard
              input. For example, to delete all mail with exactly one
              recipient user@example.com:

              mailq | tail -n +2 | grep -v '^ *(' | awk  'BEGIN { RS = "" }
                  # $7=sender, $8=recipient1, $9=recipient2
                  { if ($8 == "user@example.com" && $9 == "")
                        print $1 }
               ' | tr -d '*!' | postsuper -d -

              Specify "-d ALL" to remove all messages; for example, specify
              "-d ALL deferred" to delete all mail in the deferred queue.  As
              a safety measure, the word ALL must be specified in upper case.

              Warning: Postfix queue IDs are reused (always with Postfix <=
              2.8; and with Postfix >= 2.9 when enable_long_queue_ids=no).
              There is a very small possibility that postsuper deletes the
              wrong message file when it is executed while the Postfix mail
              system is delivering mail.

              The scenario is as follows:

              1)     The Postfix queue manager deletes the message that
                     postsuper(1) is asked to delete, because Postfix is
                     finished with the message (it is delivered, or it is
                     returned to the sender).

              2)     New mail arrives, and the new message is given the same
                     queue ID as the message that postsuper(1) is supposed to
                     delete.  The probability for reusing a deleted queue ID
                     is about 1 in 2**15 (the number of different microsecond
                     values that the system clock can distinguish within a
                     second).

              3)     postsuper(1) deletes the new message, instead of the old
                     message that it should have deleted.

       -e queue_id

       -f queue_id
              Request forced expiration for one message with the named queue
              ID in the named mail queue(s) (default: hold, incoming, active
              and deferred).

              ⊕      The message will be returned to the sender when the queue
                     manager attempts to deliver that message (note that
                     Postfix will never deliver messages in the hold queue).

              ⊕      The -e and -f options both request forced expiration. The
                     difference is that -f will also release a message if it
                     is in the hold queue. With -e, such a message would not
                     be returned to the sender until it is released with -f or
                     -H.

              ⊕      When a deferred message is force-expired, the return
                     message will state the reason for the delay. Otherwise,
                     the reason will be "message is administratively expired".

              To expire multiple files, specify the -e or -f option multiple
              times, or specify a queue_id of - to read queue IDs from
              standard input (see the -d option above for an example, but be
              sure to replace -d in the example).

              Specify "-e ALL" or "-f ALL" to expire all messages; for
              example, specify "-e ALL deferred" to expire all mail in the
              deferred queue.  As a safety measure, the word ALL must be
              specified in upper case.

              These features are available in Postfix 3.5 and later.

       -h queue_id
              Put mail "on hold" so that no attempt is made to deliver it.
              Move one message with the named queue ID from the named mail
              queue(s) (default: incoming, active and deferred) to the hold
              queue.

              To hold multiple files, specify the -h option multiple times, or
              specify a queue_id of - to read queue IDs from standard input.

              Specify "-h ALL" to hold all messages; for example, specify "-h
              ALL deferred" to hold all mail in the deferred queue.  As a
              safety measure, the word ALL must be specified in upper case.

              Note: while mail is "on hold" it will not expire when its time
              in the queue exceeds the maximal_queue_lifetime or
              bounce_queue_lifetime setting. It becomes subject to expiration
              after it is released from "hold".

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.0 and later.

       -H queue_id
              Release mail that was put "on hold".  Move one message with the
              named queue ID from the named mail queue(s) (default: hold) to
              the deferred queue.

              To release multiple files, specify the -H option multiple times,
              or specify a queue_id of - to read queue IDs from standard
              input.

              Note: specify "postsuper -r" to release mail that was kept on
              hold for a significant fraction of $maximal_queue_lifetime or
              $bounce_queue_lifetime, or longer.

              Specify "-H ALL" to release all mail that is "on hold".  As a
              safety measure, the word ALL must be specified in upper case.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.0 and later.

       -p     Purge old temporary files that are left over after system or
              software crashes.  The -p, -s, and -S operations are done before
              other operations.

       -r queue_id
              Requeue the message with the named queue ID from the named mail
              queue(s) (default: hold, incoming, active and deferred).

              To requeue multiple files, specify the -r option multiple times,
              or specify a queue_id of - to read queue IDs from standard
              input.

              Specify "-r ALL" to requeue all messages. As a safety measure,
              the word ALL must be specified in upper case.

              A requeued message is moved to the maildrop queue, from where it
              is copied by the pickup(8) and cleanup(8) daemons to a new queue
              file. In many respects its handling differs from that of a new
              local submission.

              ⊕      The message is not subjected to the smtpd_milters or
                     non_smtpd_milters settings.  When mail has passed through
                     an external content filter, this would produce incorrect
                     results with Milter applications that depend on original
                     SMTP connection state information.

              ⊕      The message is subjected again to mail address rewriting
                     and substitution.  This is useful when rewriting rules or
                     virtual mappings have changed.

                     The address rewriting context (local or remote) is the
                     same as when the message was received.

              ⊕      The message is subjected to the same content_filter
                     settings (if any) as used for new local mail submissions.
                     This is useful when content_filter settings have changed.

              Warning: Postfix queue IDs are reused (always with Postfix <=
              2.8; and with Postfix >= 2.9 when enable_long_queue_ids=no).
              There is a very small possibility that postsuper(1) requeues the
              wrong message file when it is executed while the Postfix mail
              system is running, but no harm should be done.

              This feature is available in Postfix 1.1 and later.

       -s     Structure check and structure repair.  This should be done once
              before Postfix startup.  The -p, -s, and -S operations are done
              before other operations.

              ⊕      Rename files whose name does not match the message file
                     inode number. This operation is necessary after restoring
                     a mail queue from a different machine or from backup,
                     when queue files were created with Postfix <= 2.8 or with
                     "enable_long_queue_ids = no".

              ⊕      Move queue files that are in the wrong place in the file
                     system hierarchy and remove subdirectories that are no
                     longer needed.  File position rearrangements are
                     necessary after a change in the hash_queue_names and/or
                     hash_queue_depth configuration parameters.

              ⊕      Rename queue files created with "enable_long_queue_ids =
                     yes" to short names, for migration to Postfix <= 2.8.
                     The procedure is as follows:

                     # postfix stop
                     # postconf enable_long_queue_ids=no
                     # postsuper

                     Run postsuper(1) repeatedly until it stops reporting file
                     name changes.

       -S     A redundant version of -s that requires that long file names
              also match the message file inode number. This option exists for
              testing purposes, and is available with Postfix 2.9 and later.
              The -p, -s, and -S operations are done before other operations.

       -v     Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. Multiple -v
              options make the software increasingly verbose.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems are reported to the standard error stream and to syslogd(8) or
       postlogd(8).

       postsuper(1) reports the number of messages deleted with -d, the number
       of messages expired with -e, the number of messages expired or released
       with -f, the number of messages held or released with -h or -H, the
       number of messages requeued with -r, and the number of messages whose
       queue file name was fixed with -s. The report is written to the
       standard error stream and to syslogd(8) or postlogd(8).

ENVIRONMENT

       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with the main.cf file.

BUGS
       Mail that is not sanitized by Postfix (i.e. mail in the maildrop queue)
       cannot be placed "on hold".

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       The following main.cf parameters are especially relevant to this
       program.  The text below provides only a parameter summary. See
       postconf(5) for more details including examples.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf
              configuration files.

       hash_queue_depth (1)
              The number of subdirectory levels for queue directories listed
              with the hash_queue_names parameter.

       hash_queue_names (deferred, defer)
              The names of queue directories that are split across multiple
              subdirectory levels.

       import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The list of environment parameters that a privileged Postfix
              process will import from a non-Postfix parent process, or
              name=value environment overrides.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A prefix that is prepended to the process name in syslog
              records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd".

       Available in Postfix version 2.9 and later:

       enable_long_queue_ids (no)
              Enable long, non-repeating, queue IDs (queue file names).

SEE ALSO
       sendmail(1), Sendmail-compatible user interface
       postqueue(1), unprivileged queue operations
       postlogd(8), Postfix logging
       syslogd(8), system logging

LICENSE
       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

       Wietse Venema
       Google, Inc.
       111 8th Avenue
       New York, NY 10011, USA



                                                                  POSTSUPER(1)