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READ(2)                       System Calls Manual                      READ(2)

     read, readv, pread, preadv - read input

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <unistd.h>

     read(int d, void *buf, size_t nbytes);

     pread(int d, void *buf, size_t nbytes, off_t offset);

     #include <sys/uio.h>

     readv(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt);

     preadv(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt, off_t offset);

     read() attempts to read nbytes of data from the object referenced by the
     descriptor d into the buffer pointed to by buf.  readv() performs the
     same action, but scatters the input data into the iovcnt buffers
     specified by the members of the iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ...,
     iov[iovcnt-1].  pread() and preadv() perform the same functions, but read
     from the specified position in the file without modifying the file

     For readv() and preadv(), the iovec structure is defined as:

           struct iovec {
                   void *iov_base;
                   size_t iov_len;

     Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in
     memory where data should be placed.  readv() will always fill an area
     completely before proceeding to the next.

     On objects capable of seeking, the read() starts at a position given by
     the file pointer associated with d (see lseek(2)).  Upon return from
     read(), the file pointer is incremented by the number of bytes actually

     Objects that are not capable of seeking always read from the current
     position.  The value of the file pointer associated with such an object
     is undefined.

     Upon successful completion, read(), readv(), pread(), and preadv() return
     the number of bytes actually read and placed in the buffer.  The system
     guarantees to read the number of bytes requested if the descriptor
     references a normal file that has that many bytes left before the end-of-
     file, but in no other case.

     If successful, the number of bytes actually read is returned.  Upon
     reading end-of-file, zero is returned.  Otherwise, a -1 is returned and
     the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.

     read(), readv(), pread(), and preadv() will succeed unless:

     [EAGAIN]           The file was marked for non-blocking I/O, and no data
                        were ready to be read.

     [EBADF]            d is not a valid file or socket descriptor open for

     [EFAULT]           buf points outside the allocated address space.

     [EINTR]            A read from a slow device (i.e. one that might block
                        for an arbitrary amount of time) was interrupted by
                        the delivery of a signal before any data arrived.  See
                        sigaction(2) for more information on the interaction
                        between signals and system calls.

     [EINVAL]           The file pointer associated with d was negative; or
                        the total length of the I/O is more than can be
                        expressed by the ssize_t return value.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from the file

     [EISDIR]           d refers to a directory and the implementation does
                        not allow the directory to be read using read() or
                        pread().  The readdir() function should be used

     [ENOBUFS]          A message was not delivered because it would have
                        overflowed the buffer.

     In addition, readv() and preadv() may return one of the following errors:

     [EFAULT]           Part of the iov points outside the process's allocated
                        address space.

     [EINVAL]           iovcnt was less than or equal to 0, or greater than
                        {IOV_MAX}; or one of the iov_len values in the iov
                        array was negative; or the sum of the iov_len values
                        in the iov array overflowed a 32-bit integer.

     The pread() and preadv() calls may also return the following errors:

     [EINVAL]           The specified file offset is invalid.

     [ESPIPE]           The file descriptor is associated with a pipe, socket,
                        or FIFO.

     dup(2), fcntl(2), open(2), pipe(2), poll(2), select(2), sigaction(2),
     socket(2), socketpair(2)

     The read() function conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-1990 ("POSIX.1").  The
     readv() and pread() functions conform to X/Open Portability Guide
     Issue 4, Version 2 ("XPG4.2").

     The preadv() function call appeared in NetBSD 1.4.  The pread() function
     call appeared in AT&T System V Release 4 UNIX.  The readv() function call
     appeared in 4.2BSD.  The read() function call appeared in Version 1 AT&T

     Error checks should explicitly test for -1.  Code such as

             while ((nr = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) > 0)

     is not maximally portable, as some platforms allow for nbytes to range
     between SSIZE_MAX and SIZE_MAX - 2, in which case the return value of an
     error-free read() may appear as a negative number distinct from -1.
     Proper loops should use

             while ((nr = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) != -1 && nr != 0)

NetBSD 10.99                   September 2, 2019                  NetBSD 10.99