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ROUTE(4)                     Device Drivers Manual                    ROUTE(4)

     route - kernel packet forwarding database

     #include <sys/socket.h>
     #include <net/if.h>
     #include <net/route.h>

     socket(PF_ROUTE, SOCK_RAW, int family);

     UNIX provides some packet routing facilities.  The kernel maintains a
     routing information database, which is used in selecting the appropriate
     network interface when transmitting packets.

     A user process (or possibly multiple co-operating processes) maintains
     this database by sending messages over a special kind of socket.  This
     supplants fixed size ioctl(2)'s used in earlier releases.  Routing table
     changes may only be carried out by the super user.

     The operating system may spontaneously emit routing messages in response
     to external events, such as receipt of a redirect, or failure to locate a
     suitable route for a request.  The message types are described in greater
     detail below.

     Routing database entries come in two flavors: for a specific host, or for
     all hosts on a generic subnetwork (as specified by a bit mask and value
     under the mask.  The effect of wildcard or default route may be achieved
     by using a mask of all zeros, and there may be hierarchical routes.

     When the system is booted and addresses are assigned to the network
     interfaces, each protocol family installs a routing table entry for each
     interface when it is ready for traffic.  Normally the protocol specifies
     the route through each interface as a "direct" connection to the
     destination host or network.  If the route is direct, the transport layer
     of a protocol family usually requests the packet be sent to the same host
     specified in the packet.  Otherwise, the interface is requested to
     address the packet to the gateway listed in the routing entry (i.e. the
     packet is forwarded).

     When routing a packet, the kernel will attempt to find the most specific
     route matching the destination.  (If there are two different mask and
     value-under-the-mask pairs that match, the more specific is the one with
     more bits in the mask.  A route to a host is regarded as being supplied
     with a mask of as many ones as there are bits in the destination).  If no
     entry is found, the destination is declared to be unreachable, and a
     routing-miss message is generated if there are any listeners on the
     routing control socket described below.

     A wildcard routing entry is specified with a zero destination address
     value, and a mask of all zeroes.  Wildcard routes will be used when the
     system fails to find other routes matching the destination.  The
     combination of wildcard routes and routing redirects can provide an
     economical mechanism for routing traffic.

     One opens the channel for passing routing control messages by using the
     socket call shown in the synopsis above:

     The family parameter may be AF_UNSPEC which will provide routing
     information for all address families, or can be restricted to a specific
     address family by specifying which one is desired.  There can be more
     than one routing socket open per system.

     Messages are formed by a header followed by a small number of sockaddrs
     (now variable length particularly in the ISO case), interpreted by
     position, and delimited by the new length entry in the sockaddr.  An
     example of a message with four addresses might be an ISO redirect:
     Destination, Netmask, Gateway, and Author of the redirect.  The
     interpretation of which address are present is given by a bit mask within
     the header, and the sequence is least significant to most significant bit
     within the vector.

     Any messages sent to the kernel are returned, and copies are sent to all
     interested listeners.  The exception to this is a new address marked as
     tentative, where copies will be sent once Duplicate Address Detection has
     completed and the tentative flag cleared or the duplicated flag set.
     Also, new address messages will also be emitted when other flags on the
     address change such as deprecated and detached.  The kernel will provide
     the process ID for the sender, and the sender may use an additional
     sequence field to distinguish between outstanding messages.  However,
     message replies may be lost when kernel buffers are exhausted.

     The kernel may reject certain messages, and will indicate this by filling
     in the rtm_errno field.  The routing code returns EEXIST if requested to
     duplicate an existing entry, ESRCH if requested to delete a non-existent
     entry, or ENOBUFS if insufficient resources were available to install a
     new route.  In the current implementation, all routing processes run
     locally, and the values for rtm_errno are available through the normal
     errno mechanism, even if the routing reply message is lost.

     A process may avoid the expense of reading replies to its own messages by
     issuing a setsockopt(2) call indicating that the SO_USELOOPBACK option at
     the SOL_SOCKET level is to be turned off.  A process may ignore all
     messages from the routing socket by doing a shutdown(2) system call for
     further input.

     A process can specify which route message types it's interested in by
     passing an array of route message types to the setsockopt(2) call with
     the RO_MSGFILTER option at the PF_ROUTE level.  For example, to only get
     specific messages:

           unsigned char rtfilter[] = { RTM_IFINFO, RTM_IFANNOUNCE };

           if (setsockopt(routefd, PF_ROUTE, RO_MSGFILTER,
               &rtfilter, (socklen_t)sizeof(rtfilter)) == -1)
                   err(1, "setsockopt(RO_MSGFILTER)");

     A process can specify which RTM_MISS destination addresses it's
     interested in by passing an array of struct sockaddr to the setsockopt(2)
     call with the RO_MISSFILTER option at the PF_ROUTE level.  For example,
     to only get RTM_MISS messages for specific destinations:

           char buf[1024] = { '\0' }, *cp = buf;
           struct sockaddr_in sin = {
                   .sin_family = AF_INET,
                   .sin_len = sizeof(sin),

           inet_aton("", &sin.sin_addr);
           memcpy(cp, &sin, sin.sin_len);
           cp += RT_ROUNDUP(sin.sin_len);

           inet_aton("", &sin.sin_addr);
           memcpy(cp, &sin, sin.sin_len);
           cp += RT_ROUNDUP(sin.sin_len);

           if (setsockopt(routefd, PF_ROUTE, RO_MISSFILTER,
               &sin, (socklen_t)(cp - buf)) == -1)
                   err(1, "setsockopt(RO_MISSFILTER)");

     If a route is in use when it is deleted, the routing entry will be marked
     down and removed from the routing table, but the resources associated
     with it will not be reclaimed until all references to it are released.
     User processes can obtain information about the routing entry to a
     specific destination by using a RTM_GET message, or by reading the
     /dev/kmem device, or by calling sysctl(3).

     The messages are:

     #define RTM_ADD         0x1    /* Add Route */
     #define RTM_DELETE      0x2    /* Delete Route */
     #define RTM_CHANGE      0x3    /* Change Metrics, Flags, or Gateway */
     #define RTM_GET         0x4    /* Report Information */
     #define RTM_LOSING      0x5    /* Kernel Suspects Partitioning */
     #define RTM_REDIRECT    0x6    /* Told to use different route */
     #define RTM_MISS        0x7    /* Lookup failed on this address */
     #define RTM_LOCK        0x8     /* fix specified metrics */
     #define RTM_OLDADD      0x9     /* caused by SIOCADDRT */
     #define RTM_OLDDEL      0xa     /* caused by SIOCDELRT */
     #define RTM_ONEWADDR    0xc    /* Old (pre-8.0) RTM_NEWADDR message */
     // #define RTM_RESOLVE  0xb     /* req to resolve dst to LL addr */
     #define RTM_ODELADDR    0xd    /* Old (pre-8.0) RTM_DELADDR message */
     #define RTM_OOIFINFO    0xe    /* Old (pre-1.5) RTM_IFINFO message */
     #define RTM_OIFINFO     0xf    /* Old (pre-6.0) RTM_IFINFO message */
     #define RTM_IFANNOUNCE  0x10   /* iface arrival/departure */
     #define RTM_IEEE80211   0x11    /* IEEE80211 wireless event */
     #define RTM_SETGATE     0x12    /* set prototype gateway for clones
                                      * (see example in arp_rtrequest).
     #define RTM_LLINFO_UPD  0x13    /* indication to ARP/NDP/etc. that link-layer
                                      * address has changed
     #define RTM_IFINFO      0x14   /* iface/link going up/down etc. */
     #define RTM_OCHGADDR    0x15   /* Old (pre-8.0) RTM_CHGADDR message */
     #define RTM_NEWADDR     0x16   /* address being added to iface */
     #define RTM_DELADDR     0x17   /* address being removed from iface */
     #define RTM_CHGADDR     0x18   /* address properties changed */

     A message header consists of one of the following:

     struct rt_msghdr {
         u_short rtm_msglen;        /* to skip over non-understood messages */
         u_char  rtm_version;       /* future binary compatibility */
         u_char  rtm_type;          /* message type */
         u_short rtm_index;         /* index for associated ifp */
         int     rtm_flags;         /* flags, incl kern & message, e.g. DONE */
         int     rtm_addrs;         /* bitmask identifying sockaddrs in msg */
         pid_t   rtm_pid;           /* identify sender */
         int     rtm_seq;           /* for sender to identify action */
         int     rtm_errno;         /* why failed */
         int     rtm_use;           /* from rtentry */
         u_long  rtm_inits;         /* which metrics we are initializing */
         struct  rt_metrics rtm_rmx; /* metrics themselves */

     struct if_msghdr {
         u_short ifm_msglen;        /* to skip over non-understood messages */
         u_char  ifm_version;       /* future binary compatibility */
         u_char  ifm_type;          /* message type */
         int     ifm_addrs;         /* like rtm_addrs */
         int     ifm_flags;         /* value of if_flags */
         u_short ifm_index;         /* index for associated ifp */
         struct  if_data ifm_data;  /* statistics and other data about if */

     struct ifa_msghdr {
         u_short ifam_msglen;       /* to skip over non-understood messages */
         u_char  ifam_version;      /* future binary compatibility */
         u_char  ifam_type;         /* message type */
         u_short ifam_index;        /* index for associated ifp */
         int     ifam_flags;        /* value of ifa_flags */
         int     ifam_addrs;        /* like rtm_addrs */
         pid_t   ifam_pid;          /* identify sender */
         int     ifam_addrflags;    /* family specific address flags */
         int     ifam_metric;       /* value of ifa_metric */

     struct if_announcemsghdr {
         u_short ifan_msglen;       /* to skip over non-understood messages */
         u_char  ifan_version;      /* future binary compatibility */
         u_char  ifan_type;         /* message type */
         u_short ifan_index;        /* index for associated ifp */
         char    ifan_name[IFNAMSIZ]; /* if name, e.g. "en0" */
         u_short ifan_what;         /* what type of announcement */

     The RTM_IFINFO message uses a if_msghdr header, the RTM_NEWADDR,
     RTM_CHGADDR, and RTM_DELADDR messages use a ifa_msghdr header, the
     RTM_IFANNOUNCE message uses a if_announcemsghdr header, and all other
     messages use the rt_msghdr header.

     The metrics structure is:

     struct rt_metrics {
         u_long rmx_locks;          /* Kernel must leave these values alone */
         u_long rmx_mtu;            /* MTU for this path */
         u_long rmx_hopcount;       /* max hops expected */
         u_long rmx_expire;         /* lifetime for route, e.g. redirect */
         u_long rmx_recvpipe;       /* inbound delay-bandwidth product */
         u_long rmx_sendpipe;       /* outbound delay-bandwidth product */
         u_long rmx_ssthresh;       /* outbound gateway buffer limit */
         u_long rmx_rtt;            /* estimated round trip time */
         u_long rmx_rttvar;         /* estimated rtt variance */
         u_long rmx_pksent;         /* packets sent using this route */

     Flags include the values:

     #define RTF_UP        0x1       /* route usable */
     #define RTF_GATEWAY   0x2       /* destination is a gateway */
     #define RTF_HOST      0x4       /* host entry (net otherwise) */
     #define RTF_REJECT    0x8       /* host or net unreachable */
     #define RTF_DYNAMIC   0x10      /* created dynamically (by redirect) */
     #define RTF_MODIFIED  0x20      /* modified dynamically (by redirect) */
     #define RTF_DONE      0x40      /* message confirmed */
     #define RTF_MASK      0x80      /* subnet mask present */
     #define RTF_CONNECTED 0x100     /* hosts on this route are neighbours */
     #define RTF_LLDATA    0x400     /* used by apps to add/del L2 entries */
     #define RTF_STATIC    0x800     /* manually added */
     #define RTF_BLACKHOLE 0x1000    /* just discard pkts (during updates) */
     #define RTF_PROTO2    0x4000    /* protocol specific routing flag */
     #define RTF_PROTO1    0x8000    /* protocol specific routing flag */
     #define RTF_SRC       0x10000   /* route has fixed source address */
     #define RTF_ANNOUNCE  0x20000   /* announce new ARP or NDP entry */
     #define RTF_LOCAL     0x40000   /* route represents a local address */
     #define RTF_BROADCAST 0x80000   /* route represents a bcast address */

     Specifiers for metric values in rmx_locks and rtm_inits are:

     #define RTV_MTU       0x1    /* init or lock _mtu */
     #define RTV_HOPCOUNT  0x2    /* init or lock _hopcount */
     #define RTV_EXPIRE    0x4    /* init or lock _expire */
     #define RTV_RPIPE     0x8    /* init or lock _recvpipe */
     #define RTV_SPIPE     0x10   /* init or lock _sendpipe */
     #define RTV_SSTHRESH  0x20   /* init or lock _ssthresh */
     #define RTV_RTT       0x40   /* init or lock _rtt */
     #define RTV_RTTVAR    0x80   /* init or lock _rttvar */

     Specifiers for which addresses are present in the messages are:

     #define RTA_DST       0x1    /* destination sockaddr present */
     #define RTA_GATEWAY   0x2    /* gateway sockaddr present */
     #define RTA_NETMASK   0x4    /* netmask sockaddr present */
     #define RTA_GENMASK   0x8    /* cloning mask sockaddr present */
     #define RTA_IFP       0x10   /* interface name sockaddr present */
     #define RTA_IFA       0x20   /* interface addr sockaddr present */
     #define RTA_AUTHOR    0x40   /* sockaddr for author of redirect */
     #define RTA_BRD       0x80   /* for NEWADDR, broadcast or p-p dest addr */
     #define RTA_TAG       0x100  /* route tag */

     Flags for IPv6 addresses:

     #define IN6_IFF_ANYCAST         0x01    /* anycast address */
     #define IN6_IFF_TENTATIVE       0x02    /* tentative address */
     #define IN6_IFF_DUPLICATED      0x04    /* DAD detected duplicate */
     #define IN6_IFF_DETACHED        0x08    /* may be detached from the link */
     #define IN6_IFF_DEPRECATED      0x10    /* deprecated address */
     #define IN6_IFF_NODAD           0x20    /* don't perform DAD on this address
                                              * (used only at first SIOC* call)
     #define IN6_IFF_AUTOCONF        0x40    /* autoconfigurable address. */
     #define IN6_IFF_TEMPORARY       0x80    /* temporary (anonymous) address. */

     socket(2), sysctl(3)

     RTM_RESOLVE were obsolete.  RTF_CONNECTED and RTF_LLDATA appeared in
     NetBSD 8.0.

     ifa_msghdr gained the fields ifam_pid and ifam_addrflags in NetBSD 8.0.

NetBSD 10.99                   February 4, 2020                   NetBSD 10.99