Updated: 2021/Apr/14

WPI(4)                       Device Drivers Manual                      WPI(4)

     wpi - Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless network driver

     wpi* at pci? dev ? function ?

     The wpi driver provides support for Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG Mini PCI
     Express network adapters.

     These are the modes the wpi driver can operate in:

     BSS mode
             Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when associating
             with an access point, through which all traffic passes.  This
             mode is the default.

     monitor mode
             In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
             associating with an access point.  This disables the internal
             receive filter and enables the card to capture packets from
             networks to which it wouldn't normally have access, or to scan
             for access points.

     wpi supports software WEP.  Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the de
     facto encryption standard for wireless networks.  It can be typically
     configured in one of three modes: no encryption; 40-bit encryption; or
     104-bit encryption.  Unfortunately, due to serious weaknesses in the WEP
     protocol it is strongly recommended that it not be used as the sole
     mechanism to secure wireless communication.  WEP is not enabled by

     The wpi driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) using the
     following parameters:

     bssid bssid
             Set the desired BSSID.

     -bssid  Unset the desired BSSID.  The interface will automatically select
             a BSSID in this mode, which is the default.

     chan n  Set the channel (radio frequency) to be used by the driver based
             on the given channel ID n.

     -chan   Unset the desired channel to be used by the driver.  The driver
             will automatically select a channel in this mode, which is the

     media media
             The wpi driver supports the following media types:

             autoselect  Enable autoselection of the media type and options.

     mediaopt opts
             The wpi driver supports the following media options:

             monitor  Select monitor mode.

     -mediaopt opts
             Disable the specified media options on the driver and return it
             to the default mode of operation (BSS).

     mode mode
             The wpi driver supports the following modes:

             11a  Force 802.11a operation.
             11b  Force 802.11b operation.
             11g  Force 802.11g operation.

     nwid id
             Set the network ID.  The id can either be any text string up to
             32 characters in length, or a series of hexadecimal digits up to
             64 digits.  An empty id string allows the interface to connect to
             any available access points.  By default the wpi driver uses an
             empty string.  Note that network ID is synonymous with Extended
             Service Set ID (ESSID).

     nwkey key
             Enable WEP encryption using the specified key.  The key can
             either be a string, a series of hexadecimal digits (preceded by
             `0x'), or a set of keys of the form "n:k1,k2,k3,k4", where `n'
             specifies which of the keys will be used for transmitted packets,
             and the four keys, "k1" through "k4", are configured as WEP keys.
             If a set of keys is specified, a comma (`,') within the key must
             be escaped with a backslash.  Note that if multiple keys are
             used, their order must be the same within the network.  wpi is
             capable of using both 40-bit (5 characters or 10 hexadecimal
             digits) or 104-bit (13 characters or 26 hexadecimal digits) keys.

     -nwkey  Disable WEP encryption.  This is the default mode of operation.

     The driver needs at least version 2.14.4 of the following firmware file,
     which is loaded when an interface is brought up:


           # ifconfig wpi0 nwkey 0x1deadbeef1

     Return wpi0 to its default settings:

           # ifconfig wpi0 -bssid -chan media autoselect \
                   nwid "" -nwkey

     Join an existing BSS network, "my_net":

           # ifconfig wpi0 netmask 0xffffff00 nwid my_net

     wpi%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for
     transmission did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the
     hardware.  This should not happen.

     wpi%d: fatal firmware error  For some reason, the firmware crashed.  The
     driver will reset the hardware.  This should not happen.

     wpi%d: Radio transmitter is off  The radio transmitter is off and thus no
     packet can go out.  The driver will reset the hardware.  Make sure the
     laptop radio switch is on.

     wpi%d: could not read firmware file  For some reason, the driver was
     unable to read the firmware image from the filesystem.  The file might be
     missing or corrupted.

     wpi%d: firmware file too short: %d bytes  The firmware image is corrupted
     and can't be loaded into the adapter.

     wpi%d: could not load firmware  An attempt to load the firmware into the
     adapter failed.  The driver will reset the hardware.

     On some laptops the radio transmitter button must be pushed twice to get
     the driver working, or you will get a wpi%d: fatal firmware error when
     the interface will be set to up

     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), pci(4), ifconfig(8),

     The IPW Web Page, http://damien.bergamini.free.fr/ipw/.

     The wpi driver was originally written by Damien Bergamini
     <damien@openbsd.org>.  NetBSD porting was done by Jean-Baptiste Campesato

NetBSD 9.99                    October 14, 2012                    NetBSD 9.99