Updated: 2021/Apr/14


DNSSEC-KEYFROMLABEL(8)              BIND 9              DNSSEC-KEYFROMLABEL(8)



NAME
       dnssec-keyfromlabel - DNSSEC key generation tool

SYNOPSIS
       dnssec-keyfromlabel {-l label} [-3] [-a algorithm] [-A date/offset] [-c
       class] [-D date/offset] [-D sync date/offset] [-E engine] [-f flag]
       [-G] [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-k] [-K directory] [-L ttl] [-n
       nametype] [-P date/offset] [-P sync date/offset] [-p protocol] [-R
       date/offset] [-S key] [-t type] [-v level] [-V] [-y] {name}

DESCRIPTION
       dnssec-keyfromlabel generates a pair of key files that reference a key
       object stored in a cryptographic hardware service module (HSM). The
       private key file can be used for DNSSEC signing of zone data as if it
       were a conventional signing key created by dnssec-keygen, but the key
       material is stored within the HSM and the actual signing takes place
       there.

       The name of the key is specified on the command line. This must match
       the name of the zone for which the key is being generated.

OPTIONS

       -a algorithm
              This option selects the cryptographic algorithm. The value of
              algorithm must be one of RSASHA1, NSEC3RSASHA1, RSASHA256,
              RSASHA512, ECDSAP256SHA256, ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519, or ED448.

              If no algorithm is specified, RSASHA1 is used by default unless
              the -3 option is specified, in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 is used
              instead. (If -3 is used and an algorithm is specified, that
              algorithm is checked for compatibility with NSEC3.)

              These values are case-insensitive. In some cases, abbreviations
              are supported, such as ECDSA256 for ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSA384
              for ECDSAP384SHA384. If RSASHA1 is specified along with the -3
              option, then NSEC3RSASHA1 is used instead.

              Since BIND 9.12.0, this option is mandatory except when using
              the -S option, which copies the algorithm from the predecessory
              key.  Previously, the default for newly generated keys was
              RSASHA1.

       -3     This option uses an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC
              key. If this option is used with an algorithm that has both NSEC
              and NSEC3 versions, then the NSEC3 version is used; for example,
              dnssec-keygen -3a RSASHA1 specifies the NSEC3RSASHA1 algorithm.

       -E engine
              This option specifies the cryptographic hardware to use.

              When BIND 9 is built with OpenSSL, this needs to be set to the
              OpenSSL engine identifier that drives the cryptographic
              accelerator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11). When
              BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
              (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11
              provider library specified via --with-pkcs11.

       -l label
              This option specifies the label for a key pair in the crypto
              hardware.

              When BIND 9 is built with OpenSSL-based PKCS#11 support, the
              label is an arbitrary string that identifies a particular key.
              It may be preceded by an optional OpenSSL engine name, followed
              by a colon, as in pkcs11:keylabel.

              When BIND 9 is built with native PKCS#11 support, the label is a
              PKCS#11 URI string in the format pkcs11:keyword\ =value[;\
              keyword\ =value;...]. Keywords include token, which identifies
              the HSM; object, which identifies the key; and pin-source, which
              identifies a file from which the HSM's PIN code can be obtained.
              The label is stored in the on-disk private file.

              If the label contains a pin-source field, tools using the
              generated key files are able to use the HSM for signing and
              other operations without any need for an operator to manually
              enter a PIN.  Note: Making the HSM's PIN accessible in this
              manner may reduce the security advantage of using an HSM; use
              caution with this feature.

       -n nametype
              This option specifies the owner type of the key. The value of
              nametype must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC zone key
              (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with a host
              (KEY)), USER (for a key associated with a user (KEY)), or OTHER
              (DNSKEY). These values are case-insensitive.

       -C     This option enables compatibility mode, which generates an
              old-style key, without any metadata.  By default,
              dnssec-keyfromlabel includes the key's creation date in the
              metadata stored with the private key; other dates may be set
              there as well, including publication date, activation date, etc.
              Keys that include this data may be incompatible with older
              versions of BIND; the -C option suppresses them.

       -c class
              This option indicates that the DNS record containing the key
              should have the specified class. If not specified, class IN is
              used.

       -f flag
              This option sets the specified flag in the flag field of the
              KEY/DNSKEY record.  The only recognized flags are KSK
              (Key-Signing Key) and REVOKE.

       -G     This option generates a key, but does not publish it or sign
              with it. This option is incompatible with -P and -A.

       -h     This option prints a short summary of the options and arguments
              to dnssec-keyfromlabel.

       -K directory
              This option sets the directory in which the key files are to be
              written.

       -k     This option generates KEY records rather than DNSKEY records.

       -L ttl This option sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is
              converted into a DNSKEY RR. This is the TTL used when the key is
              imported into a zone, unless there was already a DNSKEY RRset in
              place, in which case the existing TTL would take precedence.
              Setting the default TTL to 0 or none removes it.

       -p protocol
              This option sets the protocol value for the key. The protocol is
              a number between 0 and 255. The default is 3 (DNSSEC). Other
              possible values for this argument are listed in RFC 2535 and its
              successors.

       -S key This option generates a key as an explicit successor to an
              existing key. The name, algorithm, size, and type of the key are
              set to match the predecessor. The activation date of the new key
              is set to the inactivation date of the existing one. The
              publication date is set to the activation date minus the
              prepublication interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -t type
              This option indicates the type of the key. type must be one of
              AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The default is
              AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate data, and
              CONF to the ability to encrypt data.

       -v level
              This option sets the debugging level.

       -V     This option prints version information.

       -y     This option allows DNSSEC key files to be generated even if the
              key ID would collide with that of an existing key, in the event
              of either key being revoked. (This is only safe to enable if RFC
              5011 trust anchor maintenance is not used with either of the
              keys involved.)

TIMING OPTIONS
       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the
       argument begins with a + or -, it is interpreted as an offset from the
       present time. For convenience, if such an offset is followed by one of
       the suffixes y, mo, w, d, h, or mi, then the offset is computed in
       years (defined as 365 24-hour days, ignoring leap years), months
       (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
       respectively. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds. To
       explicitly prevent a date from being set, use none or never.

       -P date/offset
              This option sets the date on which a key is to be published to
              the zone. After that date, the key is included in the zone but
              is not used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not
              been used, the default is the current date.

       -P sync date/offset
              This option sets the date on which CDS and CDNSKEY records that
              match this key are to be published to the zone.

       -A date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be activated.
              After that date, the key is included in the zone and used to
              sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the
              default is the current date.

       -R date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be revoked.
              After that date, the key is flagged as revoked. It is included
              in the zone and is used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be retired.
              After that date, the key is still included in the zone, but it
              is not used to sign it.

       -D date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the key is to be deleted.
              After that date, the key is no longer included in the zone.
              (However, it may remain in the key repository.)

       -D sync date/offset
              This option sets the date on which the CDS and CDNSKEY records
              that match this key are to be deleted.

       -i interval
              This option sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set,
              then the publication and activation dates must be separated by
              at least this much time. If the activation date is specified but
              the publication date is not, the publication date defaults to
              this much time before the activation date; conversely, if the
              publication date is specified but not the activation date,
              activation is set to this much time after publication.

              If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
              key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days;
              otherwise it is zero.

              As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the
              suffixes y, mo, w, d, h, or mi, the interval is measured in
              years, months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes, respectively.
              Without a suffix, the interval is measured in seconds.

GENERATED KEY FILES
       When dnssec-keyfromlabel completes successfully, it prints a string of
       the form Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii to the standard output. This is an
       identification string for the key files it has generated.

       ⊕ nnnn is the key name.

       ⊕ aaa is the numeric representation of the algorithm.

       ⊕ iiiii is the key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keyfromlabel creates two files, with names based on the printed
       string. Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key contains the public key, and
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the private key.

       The .key file contains a DNS KEY record that can be inserted into a
       zone file (directly or with an $INCLUDE statement).

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious
       security reasons, this file does not have general read permission.

SEE ALSO
       dnssec-keygen(8), dnssec-signzone(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference
       Manual, RFC 4034, RFC 7512.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2021, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.12                                                 DNSSEC-KEYFROMLABEL(8)