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MTREE(5)                      File Formats Manual                     MTREE(5)

     mtree - format of mtree dir hierarchy files

     The mtree format is a textual format that describes a collection of
     filesystem objects.  Such files are typically used to create or verify
     directory hierarchies.

   General Format
     An mtree file consists of a series of lines, each providing information
     about a single filesystem object.  Leading whitespace is always ignored.

     When encoding file or pathnames, any backslash character or character
     outside of the 95 printable ASCII characters must be encoded as a
     backslash followed by three octal digits.  When reading mtree files, any
     appearance of a backslash followed by three octal digits should be
     converted into the corresponding character.

     Each line is interpreted independently as one of the following types:

     Blank       Blank lines are ignored.

     Comment     Lines beginning with # are ignored.

     Special     Lines beginning with / are special commands that influence
                 the interpretation of later lines.

     Relative    If the first whitespace-delimited word has no / characters,
                 it is the name of a file in the current directory.  Any
                 relative entry that describes a directory changes the current

     dot-dot     As a special case, a relative entry with the filename ..
                 changes the current directory to the parent directory.
                 Options on dot-dot entries are always ignored.

     Full        If the first whitespace-delimited word has a / character
                 after the first character, it is the pathname of a file
                 relative to the starting directory.  There can be multiple
                 full entries describing the same file.

     Some tools that process mtree files may require that multiple lines
     describing the same file occur consecutively.  It is not permitted for
     the same file to be mentioned using both a relative and a full file

   Special commands
     Two special commands are currently defined:

     /set        This command defines default values for one or more keywords.
                 It is followed on the same line by one or more whitespace-
                 separated keyword definitions.  These definitions apply to
                 all following files that do not specify a value for that

     /unset      This command removes any default value set by a previous /set
                 command.  It is followed on the same line by one or more
                 keywords separated by whitespace.

     After the filename, a full or relative entry consists of zero or more
     whitespace-separated keyword definitions.  Each such definition consists
     of a key from the following list immediately followed by an '=' sign and
     a value.  Software programs reading mtree files should warn about
     unrecognized keywords.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum       The checksum of the file using the default algorithm
                 specified by the cksum(1) utility.

     device      The device number for block or char file types.  The value
                 must be one of the following forms:

                       A device with major, minor and optional subunit fields.
                       Their meaning is specified by the operating's system
                       format.  See below for valid formats.

                       Opaque number (as stored on the file system).

                 The following values for format are recognized: native,
                 386bsd, 4bsd, bsdos, freebsd, hpux, isc, linux, netbsd, osf1,
                 sco, solaris, sunos, svr3, svr4, and ultrix.

                 See mknod(8) for more details.

     contents    The full pathname of a file that holds the contents of this

     flags       The file flags as a symbolic name.  See chflags(1) for
                 information on these names.  If no flags are to be set the
                 string "none" may be used to override the current default.

     gid         The file group as a numeric value.

     gname       The file group as a symbolic name.

     ignore      Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     inode       The inode number.

     link        The target of the symbolic link when type=link.

     md5         The MD5 message digest of the file.

     md5digest   A synonym for md5.

     mode        The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or
                 symbolic value.

     nlink       The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     nochange    Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise ignore
                 all attributes.

     optional    The file is optional; do not complain about the file if it is
                 not in the file hierarchy.

     resdevice   The "resident" device number of the file, e.g. the ID of the
                 device that contains the file.  Its format is the same as the
                 one for device.

                 The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file.

     rmd160      A synonym for ripemd160digest.

                 A synonym for ripemd160digest.

     sha1        The FIPS 160-1 ("SHA-1") message digest of the file.

     sha1digest  A synonym for sha1.

     sha256      The FIPS 180-2 ("SHA-256") message digest of the file.

                 A synonym for sha256.

     sha384      The FIPS 180-2 ("SHA-384") message digest of the file.

                 A synonym for sha384.

     sha512      The FIPS 180-2 ("SHA-512") message digest of the file.

                 A synonym for sha512.

     size        The size, in bytes, of the file.

     time        The last modification time of the file.

     type        The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:

                 block       block special device
                 char        character special device
                 dir         directory
                 fifo        fifo
                 file        regular file
                 link        symbolic link
                 socket      socket

     uid         The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname       The file owner as a symbolic name.

     cksum(1), find(1), mtree(8)

     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  The MD5 digest capability was
     added in FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the widespread use of programs which
     can spoof cksum(1).  The SHA-1 and RIPEMD160 digests were added in
     FreeBSD 4.0, as new attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in MD5.  The
     SHA-256 digest was added in FreeBSD 6.0.  Support for file flags was
     added in FreeBSD 4.0, and mostly comes from NetBSD.  The "full" entry
     format was added by NetBSD.

NetBSD 10.99                   September 4, 2013                  NetBSD 10.99