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CAT(1)                      General Commands Manual                     CAT(1)

     cat - concatenate and print files

     cat [-beflnstuv] [-B bsize] [-] [file ...]

     The cat utility reads files sequentially, writing them to the standard
     output.  The file operands are processed in command line order.  A single
     dash represents the standard input, and may appear multiple times in the
     file list.  If no file operands are given, standard input is read.

     The word "concatenate" is just a verbose synonym for "catenate".

     The options are as follows:

     -B bsize
             Read with a buffer size of bsize bytes, instead of the default
             buffer size which is the blocksize of the output file.

     -b      Implies the -n option, but doesn't number blank lines.

     -e      Implies the -v option, and displays a dollar sign (`$') at the
             end of each line as well.

     -f      Only attempt to display regular files.

     -l      Set an exclusive advisory lock on the standard output file
             descriptor.  This lock is set using fcntl(2) with the F_SETLKW
             command.  If the output file is already locked, cat will block
             until the lock is acquired.

     -n      Number the output lines, starting at 1.

     -s      Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines, causing the output to be
             single spaced.

     -t      Implies the -v option, and displays tab characters as `^I' as

     -u      The -u option guarantees that the output is unbuffered.

     -v      Displays non-printing characters so they are visible.  Control
             characters print as `^X' for control-X; the delete character
             (octal 0177) prints as `^?'.  Non-ascii characters (with the high
             bit set) are printed as `M-' (for meta) followed by the character
             for the low 7 bits.

     The cat utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     The command:

           cat file1

     will print the contents of file1 to the standard output.

     The command:

           cat file1 file2 > file3

     will sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file
     file3, truncating file3 if it already exists.  See the manual page for
     your shell (e.g., sh(1)) for more information on redirection.

     The command:

           cat file1 - file2 - file3

     will print the contents of file1, print data it receives from the
     standard input until it receives an EOF (`^D') character, print the
     contents of file2, read and output contents of the standard input again,
     then finally output the contents of file3.  Note that if the standard
     input referred to a file, the second dash on the command-line would have
     no effect, since the entire contents of the file would have already been
     read and printed by cat when it encountered the first `-' operand.

     head(1), hexdump(1), lpr(1), more(1), pr(1), tac(1), tail(1), view(1),
     vis(1), fcntl(2)

     Rob Pike, "UNIX Style, or cat -v Considered Harmful", USENIX Summer
     Conference Proceedings, 1983.

     The cat utility is expected to conform to the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992
     ("POSIX.2") specification.

     The flags [-Bbeflnstv] are extensions to the specification.

     A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.  Dennis Ritchie designed
     and wrote the first man page.  It appears to have been cat(1).

     Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output
     redirection, the command "cat file1 file2 > file1" will cause the
     original data in file1 to be destroyed!  This is performed by the shell
     before cat is run.

NetBSD 10.99                     June 15, 2014                    NetBSD 10.99