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GROPS(1)                    General Commands Manual                   GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -ppapersize ]
             [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops
       should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tps option.
       (Actually, this is the default for groff.)  If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of - will also cause
       grops to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be passed to
       grops using the groff -P option.

       Note that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure (conforming
       to the Document Structuring Convention) if called with multiple file
       arguments.  To print such concatenated output it is necessary to
       deactivate DSC handling in the printing program or previewer.

       -bn    Provide workarounds for older printers, broken spoolers, and
              previewers.  Normally grops produces output at PostScript
              LanguageLevel 2 that conforms to the Document Structuring
              Conventions version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and
              previewers can't handle such output.  The value of n controls
              what grops does to make its output acceptable to such programs.
              A value of 0 will cause grops not to employ any workarounds.

              Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
              should be generated; this is needed for early versions of
              TranScript that get confused by anything between the %%EndProlog
              comment and the first %%Page comment.

              Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with %!  should be
              stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

              Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog comments should be
              stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
              don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

              Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be
              %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when
              using Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page

              Add 16 if no media size information should be included in the
              document (this is, neither use %%DocumentMedia nor the
              setpagedevice PostScript command).  This was the behaviour of
              groff version 1.18.1 and earlier; it is needed for older
              printers which don't understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.  It
              is also necessary if the output is further processed to get an
              encapsulated PS (EPS) file -- see below.

              The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path for prologue,
              font, and device description files; name is the name of the
              device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.  This generates PostScript code that
              guesses the page length.  The guess will be correct only if the
              imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This option
              allows you to generate documents that can be printed both on
              letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This option may be used to specify a directory to search for
              files on the command line and files named in \X'ps: import' and
              \X'ps: file' escapes.  The current directory is always searched
              first.  This option may be specified more than once; the
              directories will be searched in the order specified.  No
              directory search is performed for files specified using an
              absolute path.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set physical dimension of output medium.  This overrides the
              papersize, paperlength, and paperwidth commands in the DESC
              file; it accepts the same arguments as the papersize command.
              See groff_font (5) for details.

              Use the file prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue
              instead of the default prologue file prologue.  This option
              overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an
              em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
              0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

       There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1
       to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T
       having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book
              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
              AB     AvantGarde-Demi
              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
              BMR    Bookman-Light
              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
              BMB    Bookman-Demi
              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
              CR     Courier
              CI     Courier-Oblique
              CB     Courier-Bold
              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
              HR     Helvetica
              HI     Helvetica-Oblique
              HB     Helvetica-Bold
              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
              PR     Palatino-Roman
              PI     Palatino-Italic
              PB     Palatino-Bold
              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
              TR     Times-Roman
              TI     Times-Italic
              TB     Times-Bold
              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font, and
       SS, containing slanted lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.
       Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats
       (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;
       most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using

       The default color for \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
       `rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and `cmyk'
       setcmykcolor, and for `gray' setgray.  Note that setcmykcolor is a
       PostScript LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
              PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position of the \X
              command before executing code.  The origin will be at the top
              left corner of the page, and y coordinates will increase down
              the page.  A procedure u will be defined that converts groff
              units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              will draw a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make
              changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
              to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
              specified by the def and mdef will be on top of the dictionary
              stack.  If your code adds definitions to this dictionary, you
              should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any
              definitions will persist only until the end of the page.  If you
              use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro,
              code can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
              This is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript
              code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
              There should be at most one definition per \X command.  Long
              definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the code
              arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
              definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automatically
              pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
              If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may contain up to n definitions.
              grops needs to know how many definitions code contains so that
              it can create an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to
              contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
              urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
              PostScript coordinate system; they should all be integers; llx
              and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner of
              the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the
              upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
              that give the desired width and height in groff units of the
              graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has this width
              and height and translated so that the lower left corner of the
              graphic is located at the position associated with \X command.
              If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
              the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
              that the contents of the \X command are not interpreted by
              troff; so vertical space for the graphic is not automatically
              added, and the width and height arguments are not allowed to
              have attached scaling indicators.  If the PostScript file
              complies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and
              contains a %%BoundingBox comment, then the bounding box can be
              automatically extracted from within groff by using the psbb

              See groff_tmac(5) for a description of the PSPIC macro which
              provides a convenient high-level interface for inclusion of
              PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No output will be generated for text and drawing commands that
              are bracketed with these \X commands.  These commands are
              intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
              being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable to
              display certain characters or other constructs, then other
              substitute characters or constructs can be used for previewing
              by bracketing them with these \X commands.

              For example, gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em
              character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
              problem can be overcome by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em
              character and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the
              \(em character and ignore the line (this code is already in file
              Xps.tmac which will be loaded if a document intended for grops
              is previewed with gxditview).

       The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device used
       must meet certain requirements.  The device and font description files
       supplied for ps device meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be
       used to create font files from AFM files.  The resolution must be an
       integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a
       resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file must contain a valid paper size; see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript font should be reencoded using the
       encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its
       position in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer; valid values
       are in the range 0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank lines are
       ignored.  The code for each character given in the font file must
       correspond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the
       code in the default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not
       to be reencoded.  This code can be used with the \N escape sequence in
       troff to select the character, even if the character does not have a
       groff name.  Every character in the font file must exist in the
       PostScript font, and the widths given in the font file must match the
       widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character
       with a groff name of space is blank (makes no marks on the page); it
       can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not
       only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file
       specified) just defines the order of glyphs for the first 256
       characters; all other glyphs are accessed with additional encoding
       vectors which grops produces on the fly.

       grops can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use pfbtops(1)
       to convert a Type 1 font in PFB format.  Any downloadable fonts which
       should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in the file
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download; this should consist of lines of
       the form

              font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism that is used for groff font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the font path
       is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document
       conforms to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output is conforming.  It will also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the download file as well as any needed file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on
       Garamond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font
       dictionary, and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for
       Garamond to appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.
       grops will handle this automatically provided that the downloadable
       font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by
       means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning
       with the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in the download file.  A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The
       %%DocumentNeededResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources,
       %%IncludeResource, %%BeginResource, and %%EndResource comments (or
       possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts,
       %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the help of
       GhostScript the following commands will produce an encapsulated PS file
       foo.eps from input file foo:

              groff -P-b16 foo > foo.ps
              gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- foo.ps 2> foo.bbox
              cat foo.ps | sed -e '/%%Orientation/rfoo.bbx' > foo.eps
              rm foo.bbx

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, an especial PostScript wrapper equivalent to the PFA format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to
       generate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a
       PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the
       easiest method involves the use of the application ttftot42.  This
       program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font
       wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1)
       script to create appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers
       should be added to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be
       downloaded from

              If this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the
              font path) instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The
              option -P overrides this environment variable.

              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

              Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

              Macros to disable use of characters not present in older
              PostScript printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

              Temporary file.

       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), pfbtops(1), groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

Groff Version 1.19.2           September 4, 2005                      GROPS(1)