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MAKEFS(8) System Manager's Manual MAKEFS(8) NAME makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree SYNOPSIS makefs [-rxZ] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask] [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-O offset] [-o fs-options] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-T timestamp] [-t fs-type] image-file directory [extra-directory ...] DESCRIPTION The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree directory. If any optional directory trees are passed in the extra-directory arguments, then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the directory first before creating image-file. No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task. The options are as follows: -B endian Set the byte order of the image to endian. Valid byte orders are `4321', `big', or `be' for big endian, and `1234', `little', or `le' for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored. -b free-blocks Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image. An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size. -d debug-mask Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask. XXX: document these -F mtree-specfile Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) `specfile' specification. If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry. In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored. Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in the case of block or character devices), and link (in the case of symbolic links). If time isn't provided, the current time will be used. If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length files. -f free-files Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image. An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size. -M minimum-size Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size. -m maximum-size Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided directory tree. -N userdb-dir Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls. -O offset Instead of creating the file system at the beginning of the file, start at offset. Valid only for ffs and msdos. -o fs-options Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed below. -r When merging multiple directories replace duplicate files with the last found. -S sector-size Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512. -s image-size Set the size of the file system image to image-size. This is equivalent of setting both the minimum (-m) and the maximum (-M) sizes to image-size. For ffs and msdos the offset is not included on that size. -T timestamp Specify a timestamp to be set for all file system files and directories created so that repeatable builds are possible. The timestamp can be a pathname, where the timestamps are derived from that file, a parseable date for parsedate(3) (this option is not yet available in the tools build), or an integer value interpreted as the number of seconds from the Epoch. Note that timestamps specified in an mtree(5) spec file, override the default timestamp. When this option is enabled, file systems that regularly use localtime(3) to convert times to the native format (such as udf and cd9660), use gmtime(3) instead with the specified timestamps so that they are immune to timezone changes and get consistent timestamps. -t fs-type Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system types are supported: cd9660 ISO 9660 file system. chfs Chip flash file system. ffs BSD fast file system (default). msdos FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32 file system. udf ISO/Ecma UDF file system. v7fs 7th Edition(V7) file system. -x Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile. -Z Create a sparse file for ffs. This is useful for virtual machine images. Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an `x' to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes: b Block; multiply by 512 k Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB) m Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB) g Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB) t Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB) w Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer FFS-specific options ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a value. The following keywords are supported: avgfilesize Expected average file size. avgfpdir Expected number of files per directory. bsize Block size. density Bytes per inode. extent Maximum extent size. fsize Fragment size. label Label name of the image. maxbpcg Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group. maxbpg Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group. minfree Minimum % free. optimization Optimization preference; one of `space' or `time'. version UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2. CD9660-specific options cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign (`='), and a value. The following keywords are supported: allow-deep-trees Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in the spec. allow-max-name Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the version ID. allow-multidot Allow multiple dots in a filename. applicationid Application ID of the image. archimedes Use the `ARCHIMEDES' extension to encode RISC OS metadata. boot-load-segment Set load segment for the boot image. bootimage Filename of a boot image in the format "sysid;filename", where "sysid" is one of `i386', `mac68k', `macppc', or `powerpc'. chrp-boot Write an MBR partition table to the image to allow older CHRP hardware to boot. generic-bootimage Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660 image. hard-disk-boot Boot image is a hard disk image. keep-bad-images Don't throw away images whose write was aborted due to an error. For debugging purposes. label Label name of the image. no-boot Boot image is not bootable. no-emul-boot Boot image is a "no emulation" ElTorito image. no-trailing-padding Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding). platformid Set platform ID of section header entry of the boot image. preparer Preparer ID of the image. publisher Publisher ID of the image. rockridge Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.). volumeid Volume set identifier of the image. CHFS-specific options chfs images have chfs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a value. The following keywords are supported: pagesize Pagesize. erasesize Erase block size of the media. mediatype Type of the media. NOR: 0 or NAND: 1. msdos-specific options msdos images have MS-DOS-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a value. The following keywords are supported (see newfs_msdos(8) for more details): backup_sector Location of the backup boot sector. block_size Block size. bootstrap Bootstrap file. bytes_per_sector Bytes per sector. create_size Create file size. directory_entries Directory entries. drive_heads Drive heads. fat_type FAT type (12, 16, or 32). floppy Preset drive parameters for standard format floppy disks (160, 180, 320, 360, 640, 720, 1200, 1232, 1440, or 2880). hidden_sectors Hidden sectors. info_sector Location of the info sector. media_descriptor Media descriptor. num_FAT Number of FATs. OEM_string OEM string. offset Offset in device. reserved_sectors Reserved sectors. sectors_per_cluster Sectors per cluster. sectors_per_fat Sectors per FAT. sectors_per_track Sectors per track. size File System size. volume_id Volume ID. volume_label Volume Label. V7FS-specific options The following keywords are supported: pdp PDP endian. progress Display a progress meter for the file system construction and file population. UDF-specific options udf images have udf-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a value. The following keywords are supported: disctype This can have the following values: cdrom, dvdrom, bdrom create a read-only fs dvdram, bdre, disk create a rewritable fs without sparing for defective sectors cdr, dvdr, bdr create a rewritable fs on once recordable media using a VAT cdrw, dvdrw create a rewritable fs with sparing for defective sectors When an optical media is selected here, the sectorsize and the default disc size is assumed unless given explicitly. For rom images the disc size is the minimum needed. loglabel Set the logical volume label of the disc to the specified argument. discid Set the physical volume label of the disc to the specified argument. Prepend the physical volume label with a volumeset label separated with a ':' if wanted. For strict conformance and interchange, don't set the volumeset label manually unless it has an unique hex number in the first 8 character positions. minver Set the minimum UDF version to be used. Choose UDF version numbers from 0x102, 0x150, 0x200, and 0x201. Versions 0x250 and 0x260 are currently not supported in makefs. SEE ALSO strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8) HISTORY The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6. AUTHORS Luke Mewburn <lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program), Daniel Watt, Walter Deignan, Ryan Gabrys, Alan Perez-Rathke, Ram Vedam (cd9660 support), UCHIYAMA Yasushi (v7fs support), Tamas Toth (chfs support), Christos Zoulas (msdos support), Reinoud Zandijk (udf support). NetBSD 8.0 April 13, 2017 NetBSD 8.0