Updated: 2021/Apr/14

MAKEFS(8)                   System Manager's Manual                  MAKEFS(8)

     makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree

     makefs [-LrxZ] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask]
            [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size]
            [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-O offset] [-o fs-options]
            [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-T timestamp] [-t fs-type]
            image-file directory [extra-directory ...]

     The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the
     directory tree directory.  If any optional directory trees are passed in
     the extra-directory arguments, then the directory tree of each argument
     will be merged into the directory first before creating image-file.  No
     special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -B endian
           Set the byte order of the image to endian.  Valid byte orders are
           `4321', `big', or `be' for big endian, and `1234', `little', or
           `le' for little endian.  Some file systems may have a fixed byte
           order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -b free-blocks
           Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the
           image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -d debug-mask
           Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
           set in debug-mask.  XXX: document these

     -F mtree-specfile
           Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) `specfile' specification.

           If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its
           permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically
           overridden by the specfile.  An error will be raised if the type of
           entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

           In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry
           in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the
           specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored.
           Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is
           necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the
           specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in
           the case of block or character devices), and link (in the case of
           symbolic links).  If time isn't provided, the current time will be
           used.  If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be
           used.  Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length

     -f free-files
           Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
           the image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -L    All symbolic links are followed.

     -M minimum-size
           Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
           Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size.  An
           error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger
           than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.

     -N userdb-dir
           Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
           text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from
           the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library

     -O offset
           Instead of creating the file system at the beginning of the file,
           start at offset.  Valid only for ffs and msdos.

     -o fs-options
           Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated
           list of options.  Valid file system specific options are detailed

     -r    When merging multiple directories replace duplicate files with the
           last found.

     -S sector-size
           Set the file system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -s image-size
           Set the size of the file system image to image-size.  This is
           equivalent of setting both the minimum (-M) and the maximum (-m)
           sizes to image-size.  For ffs and msdos the offset is not included
           on that size.

     -T timestamp
           Specify a timestamp to be set for all file system files and
           directories created so that repeatable builds are possible.  The
           timestamp can be a pathname, where the timestamps are derived from
           that file, a parseable date for parsedate(3) (this option is not
           yet available in the tools build), or an integer value interpreted
           as the number of seconds from the Epoch.  Note that timestamps
           specified in an mtree(5) spec file, override the default timestamp.
           When this option is enabled, file systems that regularly use
           localtime(3) to convert times to the native format (such as udf and
           cd9660), use gmtime(3) instead with the specified timestamps so
           that they are immune to timezone changes and get consistent

     -t fs-type
           Create an fs-type file system image.  The following file system
           types are supported:

                 cd9660  ISO 9660 file system.

                 chfs    Chip flash file system.

                 ffs     BSD fast file system (default).

                 msdos   FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32 file system.

                 udf     ISO/Ecma UDF file system.

                 v7fs    7th Edition(V7) file system.

     -x    Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.

     -Z    Create a sparse file for ffs.  This is useful for virtual machine

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.  Two or
     more numbers may be separated by an `x' to indicate a product.  Each
     number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
           b    Block; multiply by 512
           k    Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
           m    Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
           g    Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
           t    Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
           w    Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           avgfilesize   Expected average file size.
           avgfpdir      Expected number of files per directory.
           bsize         Block size.
           density       Bytes per inode.
           extent        Maximum extent size.
           fsize         Fragment size.
           label         Label name of the image.
           maxbpcg       Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
           maxbpg        Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
           minfree       Minimum % free.
           optimization  Optimization preference; one of `space' or `time'.
           version       UFS version.  1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

   CD9660-specific options
     cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be
     provided.  The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal
     sign (`='), and a value.  The following keywords are supported:

           allow-deep-trees      Allow the directory structure to exceed the
                                 maximum specified in the spec.
           allow-max-name        Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for
                                 filenames by omitting the version ID.
           allow-multidot        Allow multiple dots in a filename.
           applicationid         Application ID of the image.
           archimedes            Use the `ARCHIMEDES' extension to encode RISC
                                 OS metadata.
           boot-load-segment     Set load segment for the boot image.
           bootimage             Filename of a boot image in the format
                                 "sysid;filename", where "sysid" is one of
                                 `efi', `i386', `mac68k', `macppc', or
           chrp-boot             Write an MBR partition table to the image to
                                 allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
           generic-bootimage     Load a generic boot image into the first 32K
                                 of the cd9660 image.
           hard-disk-boot        Boot image is a hard disk image.
           keep-bad-images       Don't throw away images whose write was
                                 aborted due to an error.  For debugging
           label                 Label name of the image.
           no-boot               Boot image is not bootable.
           no-emul-boot          Boot image is a "no emulation" ElTorito
           no-trailing-padding   Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs
                                 the padding).
           platformid            Set platform ID of section header entry of
                                 the boot image.
           preparer              Preparer ID of the image.
           publisher             Publisher ID of the image.
           rockridge             Use RockRidge extensions (for longer
                                 filenames, etc.).
           volumeid              Volume set identifier of the image.

   CHFS-specific options
     chfs images have chfs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           pagesize      Pagesize.
           erasesize     Erase block size of the media.
           mediatype     Type of the media.  NOR: 0 or NAND: 1.

   msdos-specific options
     msdos images have MS-DOS-specific optional parameters that may be
     provided.  The arguments consist of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported (see newfs_msdos(8) for more

           backup_sector         Location of the backup boot sector.
           block_size            Block size.
           bootstrap             Bootstrap file.
           bytes_per_sector      Bytes per sector.
           create_size           Create file size.
           directory_entries     Directory entries.
           drive_heads           Drive heads.
           fat_type              FAT type (12, 16, or 32).
           floppy                Preset drive parameters for standard format
                                 floppy disks (160, 180, 320, 360, 640, 720,
                                 1200, 1232, 1440, or 2880).
           hidden_sectors        Hidden sectors.
           info_sector           Location of the info sector.
           media_descriptor      Media descriptor.
           num_FAT               Number of FATs.
           OEM_string            OEM string.
           offset                Offset in device.
           reserved_sectors      Reserved sectors.
           sectors_per_cluster   Sectors per cluster.
           sectors_per_fat       Sectors per FAT.
           sectors_per_track     Sectors per track.
           size                  File System size.
           volume_id             Volume ID.
           volume_label          Volume Label.

   V7FS-specific options
     The following keywords are supported:

           pdp           PDP endian.
           progress      Display a progress meter for the file system
                         construction and file population.

   UDF-specific options
     udf images have udf-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           disctype      This can have the following values:
                         cdrom, dvdrom, bdrom   create a read-only fs
                         dvdram, bdre, disk     create a rewritable fs without
                                                sparing for defective sectors
                         cdr, dvdr, bdr         create a rewritable fs on once
                                                recordable media using a VAT
                         cdrw, dvdrw            create a rewritable fs with
                                                sparing for defective sectors
                         When an optical media is selected here, the
                         sectorsize and the default disc size is assumed
                         unless given explicitly.  For rom images the disc
                         size is the minimum needed.
           loglabel      Set the logical volume label of the disc to the
                         specified argument.
           discid        Set the physical volume label of the disc to the
                         specified argument.  Prepend the physical volume
                         label with a volumeset label separated with a ':' if
                         wanted.  For strict conformance and interchange,
                         don't set the volumeset label manually unless it has
                         an unique hex number in the first 8 character
           minver        Set the minimum UDF version to be used.  Choose UDF
                         version numbers from 0x102, 0x150, 0x200, and 0x201.
                         Versions 0x250 and 0x260 are currently not supported
                         in makefs.

     strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)

     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Luke Mewburn <lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program),
     Daniel Watt,
     Walter Deignan,
     Ryan Gabrys,
     Alan Perez-Rathke,
     Ram Vedam (cd9660 support),
     UCHIYAMA Yasushi (v7fs support),
     Tamas Toth (chfs support),
     Christos Zoulas (msdos support),
     Reinoud Zandijk (udf support).

NetBSD 9.99                      April 4, 2021                     NetBSD 9.99