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NETSTAT(1)                  General Commands Manual                 NETSTAT(1)

     netstat - show network status

     netstat [-Aan] [-f address_family[,family ...]] [-M core] [-N system]
     netstat [-bdghiLlmnqrSsTtv] [-f address_family[,family ...]] [-M core]
             [-N system]
     netstat [-dn] [-I interface] [-M core] [-N system] [-w wait]
     netstat [-M core] [-N system] [-p protocol]
     netstat [-M core] [-N system] [-p protocol] -P pcbaddr
     netstat [-i] [-I Interface] [-p protocol]
     netstat [-is] [-f address_family[,family ...]] [-I Interface]
     netstat [-s] [-I Interface] -B

     The netstat command symbolically displays the contents of various
     network-related data structures.  There are a number of output formats,
     depending on the options for the information presented.  The first form
     of the command displays a list of active sockets for each protocol.  The
     second form presents the contents of one of the other network data
     structures according to the option selected.  Using the third form, with
     a wait interval specified, netstat will continuously display the
     information regarding packet traffic on the configured network
     interfaces.  The fourth form displays statistics about the named
     protocol.  The fifth and sixth forms display per interface statistics for
     the specified protocol or address family.

     The options have the following meaning:

     -A    With the default display, show the address of any protocol control
           blocks associated with sockets; used for debugging.

     -a    With the default display, show the state of all sockets; normally
           sockets used by server processes are not shown.

     -B    With the default display, show the current bpf(4) peers.  To show
           only the peers listening to a specific interface, use the -I
           option.  If the -s option is present, show the current bpf(4)

     -b    With the interface display (option -i), show bytes in and out,
           instead of packets in and out.

     -d    With either interface display (option -i or an interval, as
           described below), show the number of dropped packets.

     -f address_family[,family ...]
           Limit statistics or address control block reports to those of the
           specified address_families.  The following address families are
           recognized: inet, for AF_INET; inet6, for AF_INET6; arp, for
           AF_ARP; ns, for AF_NS; atalk, for AF_APPLETALK; mpls, for AF_MPLS;
           and local or unix, for AF_LOCAL.

     -g    Show information related to multicast (group address) routing.  By
           default, show the IP Multicast virtual-interface and routing
           tables.  If the -s option is also present, show multicast routing

     -h    When used with -b in combination with either -i or -I, output
           "human-readable" byte counts.

     -I interface
           Show information about the specified interface; used with a wait
           interval as described below.  If the -f address_family option (with
           the -s option) or the -p protocol option is present, show per-
           interface statistics on the interface for the specified
           address_family or protocol, respectively.

     -i    Show the state of interfaces which have been auto-configured
           (interfaces statically configured into a system, but not located at
           boot time are not shown).  If the -a options is also present,
           multicast addresses currently in use are shown for each Ethernet
           interface and for each IP interface address.  Multicast addresses
           are shown on separate lines following the interface address with
           which they are associated.  If the -f address_family option (with
           the -s option) or the -p protocol option is present, show per-
           interface statistics on all interfaces for the specified
           address_family or protocol, respectively.

     -L    Don't show link-level routes (e.g., IPv4 ARP or IPv6 neighbour

     -l    With the -g option, display wider fields for the IPv6 multicast
           routing table "Origin" and "Group" columns.

     -M core
           Use kvm(3) instead of sysctl(3) to retrieve information and extract
           values associated with the name list from the specified core.  If
           the -M option is not given but the -N option is given, the default
           /dev/mem is used.

     -m    Show statistics recorded by the mbuf memory management routines
           (the network manages a private pool of memory buffers).

     -N system
           Use kvm(3) instead of sysctl(3) to retrieve information and extract
           the name list from the specified system.  For the default behavior
           when only -M option is given, see the description about when
           execfile is NULL in kvm_openfiles(3).

     -n    Show network addresses and ports as numbers (normally netstat
           interprets addresses and ports and attempts to display them
           symbolically).  This option may be used with any of the display

     -P pcbaddr
           Dump the contents of the protocol control block (PCB) located at
           kernel virtual address pcbaddr.  This address may be obtained using
           the -A flag.  The default protocol is TCP, but may be overridden
           using the -p flag.

     -p protocol
           Show statistics about protocol, which is either a well-known name
           for a protocol or an alias for it.  Some protocol names and aliases
           are listed in the file /etc/protocols.  A null response typically
           means that there are no interesting numbers to report.  The program
           will complain if protocol is unknown or if there is no statistics
           routine for it.

     -q    Show software interrupt queue setting/statistics for all protocols.

     -r    Show the routing tables.  When -s is also present, show routing
           statistics instead.

     -S    Show network addresses as numbers (as with -n, but show ports

     -s    Show per-protocol statistics.  If this option is repeated, counters
           with a value of zero are suppressed.

     -T    Show MPLS Tags for the routing tables.  If multiple tags exists,
           they will be comma separated, first tag being the BoS one.

     -t    With the -i option, display the current value of the watchdog timer

     -v    Show extra (verbose) detail for the routing tables (-r), or avoid
           truncation of long addresses.

     -w wait
           Show network interface statistics at intervals of wait seconds.

     -X    Force use of sysctl(3) when retrieving information.  Some features
           of netstat may not be (fully) supported when using sysctl(3).  This
           flag forces the use of the latter regardless, and emits a message
           if a not yet fully supported feature is used in conjunction with
           it.  This flag might be removed at any time; do not rely on its

     The default display, for active sockets, shows the local and remote
     addresses, send and receive queue sizes (in bytes), protocol, and the
     internal state of the protocol.  Address formats are of the form
     ``host.port'' or ``network.port'' if a socket's address specifies a
     network but no specific host address.  When known the host and network
     addresses are displayed symbolically according to the data bases
     /etc/hosts and /etc/networks, respectively.  If a symbolic name for an
     address is unknown, or if the -n option is specified, the address is
     printed numerically, according to the address family.  For more
     information regarding the Internet ``dot format,'' refer to inet(3)).
     Unspecified, or ``wildcard'', addresses and ports appear as ``*''.  You
     can use the fstat(1) command to find out which process or processes hold
     references to a socket.

     The interface display provides a table of cumulative statistics regarding
     packets transferred, errors, and collisions.  The network addresses of
     the interface and the maximum transmission unit (``mtu'') are also

     The routing table display indicates the available routes and their
     status.  Each route consists of a destination host or network and a
     gateway to use in forwarding packets.  The flags field shows a collection
     of information about the route stored as binary choices.  The individual
     flags are discussed in more detail in the route(8) and route(4) manual

     Direct routes are created for each interface attached to the local host;
     the gateway field for such entries shows the address of the outgoing
     interface.  The refcnt field gives the current number of active uses of
     the route.  Connection oriented protocols normally hold on to a single
     route for the duration of a connection while connectionless protocols
     obtain a route while sending to the same destination.  The use field
     provides a count of the number of packets sent using that route.  The mtu
     entry shows the mtu associated with that route.  This mtu value is used
     as the basis for the TCP maximum segment size.  The 'L' flag appended to
     the mtu value indicates that the value is locked, and that path mtu
     discovery is turned off for that route.  A `-' indicates that the mtu for
     this route has not been set, and a default TCP maximum segment size will
     be used.  The interface entry indicates the network interface used for
     the route.

     When netstat is invoked with the -w option and a wait interval argument,
     it displays a running count of statistics related to network interfaces.
     An obsolescent version of this option used a numeric parameter with no
     option, and is currently supported for backward compatibility.  This
     display consists of a column for the primary interface (the first
     interface found during autoconfiguration) and a column summarizing
     information for all interfaces.  The primary interface may be replaced
     with another interface with the -I option.  The first line of each screen
     of information contains a summary since the system was last rebooted.
     Subsequent lines of output show values accumulated over the preceding

     The first character of the flags column in the -B option shows the status
     of the bpf(4) descriptor which has three different values: Idle ('I'),
     Waiting ('W') and Timed Out ('T').  The second character indicates
     whether the promisc flag is set.  The third character indicates the
     status of the immediate mode.  The fourth character indicates whether the
     peer will have the ability to see the packets sent.  And the fifth
     character shows the header complete flag status.

     fstat(1), nfsstat(1), ps(1), sockstat(1), vmstat(1), inet(3), kvm(3),
     kvm_openfiles(3), sysctl(3), bpf(4), route(4), hosts(5), networks(5),
     protocols(5), services(5), ifmcstat(8), iostat(8), route(8), trpt(8)

     The netstat command appeared in 4.2BSD.  IPv6 support was added by
     WIDE/KAME project.

     The notion of errors is ill-defined.

NetBSD 9.99                      July 21, 2020                     NetBSD 9.99