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HIER(7) Miscellaneous Information Manual HIER(7) NAME hier -- layout of filesystems DESCRIPTION An outline of the filesystem hierarchy. Naming is very important. The UNIX System relies on filename conventions for much of its power as a system. The following file system layout describes generally where things are and what they are, with references to other man pages for more detailed documentation. Not all files will be in every system. / root directory of the system /COPYRIGHT system copyright notice, most often put on CD-ROM distributions. /[a-z]/ user filesystems /altroot/ alternate root filesystem, in case of disaster /bin/ utilities used in both single and multi-user environments /boot* second-stage boot loader(s) for some platforms; see installboot(8) /cdrom/ empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point for CD devices for ISO-9660 file systems /dev/ block, character and other special device files MAKEDEV script for creating device files; see makedev(8) console the computer's console device drum system swap space; see drum(4) fd/ file descriptor files; see fd(4) klog kernel logging device; see syslog(3) kmem kernel virtual memory device; see mem(4) log UNIX domain datagram log socket; see syslogd(8) mem kernel physical memory device; see mem(4) null the null device; see null(4) pts/ mount point for the pseudo-terminal device file system; see mount_ptyfs(8) stderr stdin stdout file descriptor files; see fd(4) tty process' controlling terminal device; see tty(4) zero the zero device; see zero(4) /etc/ system configuration files and scripts amd* configuration files for amd(8) changelist files backed up by the security script crontab schedule used by the cron(8) daemon csh.cshrc csh.login csh.logout system-wide scripts for csh(1) daily script run each day by cron(8) daily.conf configuration file for daily; see daily.conf(5) defaults/ default configuration files read by various /etc/*.conf files disktab disk description file, see disktab(5) dm.conf dungeon master configuration; see dm.conf(5) dumpdates dump history; see dump(8) exports filesystem export information; see mountd(8) fstab filesystem information; see fstab(5) and mount(8) ftpusers users denied ftp(1) access; see ftpd(8) ftpwelcome ftp(1) initial message; see ftpd(8) gettytab terminal configuration database; see gettytab(5) group group permissions file; see group(5) hosts host name database backup for named(8); see hosts(5) hosts.equiv trusted machines with equivalent user ID's hosts.lpd trusted machines with printing privileges inetd.conf Internet server configuration file; see inetd(8) kerberosV/ configuration files for the kerberos version V; see kerberos(8) localtime local timezone information; see ctime(3) mail/ configuration files for sendmail(1) aliases* name alias files sendmail.* sendmail(1) configuration information mail.rc system-wide initialization script for mail(1) man.conf configuration file for man(1); see man.conf(5) master.passwd Main password file, readable only by root; see passwd(5) mk.conf optional file containing make(1) variables, read by pkgsrc and the system sources. monthly script run each month by cron(8) monthly.conf configuration file for monthly; see monthly.conf(5) motd system message of the day mtree/ mtree configuration files; see mtree(8) named.* namedb/ named configuration files and databases; see named(8) netgroup network groups; see netgroup(5) netstart network startup script networks network name data base; see networks(5) passwd World readable password file generated from master.passwd; see passwd(5), pwd_mkdb(8) phones remote host phone number data base; see phones(5) printcap system printer configuration; see printcap(5) protocols protocol name database; see protocols(5) pwd.db database form of passwd file; see pwd_mkdb(8) rc master system startup script invoked by init(8); see rc(8) rc.conf configuration file for system startup and shutdown scripts; see rc.conf(5) rc.d/ directory containing per-subsystem startup and shutdown scripts; see rc(8) rc.local locally editable system startup script rc.shutdown master system shutdown script invoked by shutdown(8); see rc(8) remote remote host description file; see remote(5) security daily (in)security script run by cron(8) security.conf configuration file for security; see security.conf(5) services service name data base; see services(5) shells list of permitted shells; see shells(5) sliphome/ SLIP login/logout scripts; see sliplogin(8) spwd.db database form of master.passwd file; see pwd_mkdb(8) syslog.conf syslogd(8) configuration file; see syslog.conf(5) ttys terminal initialization information; see ttys(5) weekly script run each week by cron(8) weekly.conf configuration file for weekly; see weekly.conf(5) /home/ mount point for the automounter; see amd(8) /kern/ mount point for the kern file system; see mount_kernfs(8) /lib/ dynamic linked libraries used by dynamic linked programs (such as those in /bin/ and /sbin/) that cannot rely upon /usr/lib/ being available. /libdata/ non-executable files (such as device firmware) required at boot time, when /usr/libdata may not be available. /libexec/ system utilities (such as the dynamic linker) required by programs and libraries that cannot rely upon /usr/libexec/ being available. /mnt/ empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point /netbsd pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time). /proc/ mount point for the process file system; see mount_procfs(8) /rescue/ statically linked rescue tools, for use in system recovery /root/ home directory for the super-user .cshrc super-user start-up file .login super-user start-up file .profile super-user start-up file .rhosts super-user id mapping between machines /sbin/ system programs and administration utilities used in both single-user and multi-user environments /stand/ programs used in a standalone environment /tmp/ temporary files, usually a mfs(8) memory-based filesystem (the contents of /tmp are usually not preserved across a system reboot) /usr/ contains the majority of the system utilities and files X11R6/ X11 files X11R7/ X11 files bin/ X11 binaries include/ X11 include files lib/ X11 libraries bin/ common utilities, programming tools, and applications games/ the important stuff include/ standard C include files arpa/ include files for Internet service protocols atf/ include files for the Automated Testing Framework; see atf(7) g++/ include files for the C++ compiler machine/ machine specific include files net/ netatalk/ C include files for AppleTalk protocols miscellaneous network include files; see atalk(4) netinet/ include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4) netinet6/ include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4) netkey/ include files for secret key management, used for security protocols; see ipsec(4) netnatm/ C include files for native mode ATM nfs/ C include files for NFS (Network File System) protocols/ C include files for Berkeley service protocols sys/ system C include files (kernel data structures) ufs/ C include files for UFS (The U-word File System) lib/ archive, profiled, position independent archive, and shared libraries lua/ 5.3/ Lua 5.3 modules libdata/ miscellaneous utility data files libexec/ system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs) mdec/ boot blocks, etc. obj/ architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src tree; normally a symbolic link or mounted filesystem pkg/ packages maintained by groups other than the NetBSD Project. bin/ contributed binaries include/ contributed include files lib/ contributed libraries libdata/ contributed data files libexec/ contributed daemons sbin/ contributed system utilities pkgsrc/ build descriptions ("packages") for the NetBSD packages system. distfiles/ Where unchanged source archives are fetched to/stored packages/ Where compiled binary packages are stored There are also several other subdirectories which contain packages of a certain category, e.g., archivers, graphics, ... sbin/ system daemons and system utilities (normally executed by the super-user) share/ architecture-independent text files calendar/ a variety of calendar files; see calendar(1) dict/ word lists; see look(1) and spell(1) words common words web2 words of Webster's 2nd International papers/ reference databases; see refer(1) special/ custom word lists; see spell(1) doc/ miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed 4.3BSD manuals (available from the USENIX association) games/ text files used by various games i18n/ internationalization databases; see iconv(3) locale/ locale databases and gettext message catalogs; see setlocale(3) and gettext(3) man/ formatted manual pages me/ macros for use with the me(7) macro package misc/ miscellaneous system-wide text files terminfo terminal characteristics database; see terminfo(5) terminfo.cdb database form of terminfo file; see tic(1) mk/ include files for make(1) ms/ macros for use with the ms(7) macro package nls/ message catalogs; see catgets(3) skel/ sample initialization files for new user accounts tmac/ text processing macros; see nroff(1) and troff(1) zoneinfo/ timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5) tests/ test programs; see atf-run(1) for information on how to run them /usr/src/ NetBSD and local source files bin/ source for utilities/files in /bin common/ sources shared between kernel and userland crypto/ cryptographic source, which may have import or export restrictions dist/ third-party `virgin' source code, referenced by other parts of the source tree (deprecated, use external/ instead) distrib/ tools and data-files for making distributions doc/ documentation about the source tree (i.e., about the tree, not about how to use the built software.) etc/ source (usually example files) for files in /etc external/ source for programs from external third parties (where NetBSD is the not the primary maintainer), grouped by license, and then products per license apache2/ Apache 2.0 license. bsd/ BSD (or equivalent) licensed software, possibly with the ``advertising clause''. cddl/ Common Development and Distribution License (the Sun license which is based on the Mozilla Public License version 1.1). gpl2/ GNU Public License, version 2 (or earlier). gpl3/ GNU Public License, version 3. historical/ Lucent's old license. ibm-public/ IBM's public license. intel-fw-eula/ Intel firmware license with redistribution restricted to OEM. intel-fw-public/ Intel firmware license permitting redistribution with terms similar to BSD licensed software. intel-public/ Intel license permitting redistribution with terms similar to BSD licensed software. mit/ MIT (X11) style license. zlib/ BSD-like zlib license. games/ source for utilities/files in /usr/games gnu/ source for programs covered by the GNU license (or similar) (deprecated; use external/gpl2/ or external/gpl3/ as appropriate) include/ source for files in /usr/include lib/ source for libraries in /usr/lib libexec/ source for utilities/files in /usr/libexec regress/ various regression tests rescue/ source/makefiles for /rescue sbin/ source for utilities/files in /sbin share/ source for files in /usr/share doc/ papers/ source for various Berkeley technical papers psd/ source for Programmer's Supplementary Documents smm/ source for System Manager's Manual usd/ source for User's Supplementary Documents sys/ kernel source files arch/ architecture-specific support acorn26/ Acorn Archimedes, A- series and R-series systems acorn32/ Acorn RiscPC/A7000 and VLSI RC7500 algor/ Algorithmics Ltd. MIPS evaluations boards alpha/ Digital/Compaq Alpha amd64/ Computers with x86_64 capable CPUs amiga/ Commodore Amiga and MacroSystem DraCo amigappc/ PowerPC based Amiga boards arc/ MIPS-based machines following the Advanced RISC Computing spec arm/ ARM processor general support atari/ Atari TT030, Falcon and Hades bebox/ Be Inc. BeBox cats/ Chalice Technology's CATS and Intel's EBSA-285 evaluation boards cesfic/ CES FIC8234 VME processor board cobalt/ Cobalt Networks' MIPS- based Microserver dreamcast/ Sega Dreamcast game console emips/ Machines based on Extensible MIPS evbarm/ ARM based evaluation boards evbmips/ MIPS based evaluation boards evbppc/ PowerPC based evaluation boards and appliances evbsh3/ SH3/SH4 based evaluation boards ews4800mips/ NEC's MIPS based EWS4800 workstations hp300/ Hewlett-Packard 9000/300 and 400 680x0-based workstations hppa/ Hewlett-Packard 9000/700 and 9000/800 HPPA based workstations hpcarm/ StrongARM based WinCE PDA machines hpcmips/ MIPS based WinCE PDA machines hpcsh/ Hitachi SH3/4 based WinCE PDA machines hppa/ HPPA processor general support i386/ 80x86-based IBM PCs and clones ibmnws/ IBM Network Station 1000 iyonix/ Castle Technology's Iyonix ARM based PCs luna68k/ Omron Tateishi Electric's 680x0-based LUNA workstations m68k/ 680x0 processor general support mac68k/ Apple Macintosh with 68k CPU macppc/ Apple Power Macintosh and clones mips/ MIPS processor general support mipsco/ MIPS Computer Systems Inc. family of workstations and servers mmeye/ Brains Inc. SH3 based mmEye multimedia server mvme68k/ Motorola MVME 680x0-based SBCs mvmeppc/ Motorola PowerPC VME SBCs netwinder/ StrongARM based NetWinder machines news68k/ Sony's 680x0-based NEWS workstations newsmips/ Sony's MIPS-based NEWS workstations next68k/ NeXT 68k "black" hardware ofppc/ Open Firmware PowerPC workstations playstation2/ SONY PlayStation 2 pmax/ Digital MIPS-based DECstations and DECsystems powerpc/ PowerPC processor support prep/ PReP (PowerPC Reference Platform) and CHRP machines sandpoint/ Motorola Sandpoint reference platform sbmips/ Broadcom/SiByte evaluation boards sgimips/ Silicon Graphics' MIPS- based workstations sh3/ SH3/SH4 processor general support shark/ Digital DNARD ("Shark") sparc/ Sun Microsystems SPARC (32-bit) and UltraSPARC (in 32-bit mode) sparc64/ Sun Microsystems UltraSPARC (in native 64-bit mode) sun2/ Sun Microsystems 68010-based Sun 2 architecture sun3/ Sun Microsystems 68020/68030-based Sun 3/3x architecture sun68k/ 680x0-based Sun architecture general support vax/ Digital VAX x68k/ Sharp X680x0 680x0-based workstations x86/ General support for PC/AT compatibles with ia32 or x86_64 CPUs xen/ The Xen virtual machine monitor zaurus/ Sharp C3x00 Arm based PDA compat/ kernel compatibility modules directory common/ common compatibility routines, old 4BSD and NetBSD routines. freebsd/ support for FreeBSD binaries; see compat_freebsd(8) hpux/ support for 68000 HP-UX binaries ibcs2/ support for Intel Binary binaries linux/ support for Linux binaries; see compat_linux(8) m68k4k/ support for 4KB page 68000 binaries netbsd32/ support for NetBSD 32-bit binaries on 64 bit platforms with compatible CPU families osf1/ support for Digital UNIX (formerly OSF/1) binaries ossaudio/ support for OSS audio sunos/ support for SunOS 4.x binaries; see compat_sunos(8) svr4/ support for System V Release 4 binaries; see compat_svr4(8) ultrix/ support for ULTRIX binaries vax1k/ support for older VAX binaries that started on a 1 KB boundary conf/ architecture independent configuration directory crypto/ cryptographic kernel source, which may have import or export restrictions ddb/ in kernel debugger dev/ architecture independent device support fs/ miscellaneous file systems adosfs/ AmigaDOS file-system support; see mount_ados(8) cd9660/ support for the ISO-9660 filesystem; see mount_cd9660(8) filecorefs/ support for the Acorn RISC OS filecore filesystem; see mount_filecore(8) msdosfs/ MS-DOS file system; see mount_msdos(8) ntfs/ NTFS filesystem support; see mount_ntfs(8) ptyfs/ pseudo-terminal device filesystem; see mount_ptyfs(8) smbfs/ SMB/CIFS filesystem support; see mount_smbfs(8) union/ union file system; see mount_union(8) gdbscripts/ support for accessing kernel structures from within the debugger gdb(1). ipkdb/ support for kernel debugging over the network kern/ support for the high kernel (system calls) lib/ kernel libraries libkern/ C library routines used in the kernel libsa/ machine independent stand alone kernel library libz/ compression library miscfs/ miscellaneous file systems deadfs/ kernel only dead file system fdesc/ file descriptor file system; see mount_fdesc(8) fifofs/ POSIX FIFO support genfs/ kernel only generic file system kernfs/ kernel namespace file system; see mount_kernfs(8) nullfs/ loop back file system; see mount_null(8) overlay/ overlay file system; see mount_overlay(8) procfs/ process file system; see mount_procfs(8) specfs/ kernel only special file system syncfs/ kernel trickle sync algorithm umapfs/ user and group re-mapping file system; see mount_umap(8) net/ miscellaneous networking support netatalk/ AppleTalk networking support netinet/ IP networking support netinet6/ IPv6 networking support netkey/ Key database for IPsec networking support netnatm/ ATM networking support nfs/ NFS support stand/ kernel standalone support sys/ kernel (and system) include files ufs/ local filesystem support ffs/ the Berkeley Fast File System lfs/ the log-structured file system mfs/ the in-memory file system ufs/ shared UNIX file system support uvm/ UVM virtual memory system tests/ source for test programs in /usr/tests usr.bin/ source for utilities/files in /usr/bin usr.sbin/ source for utilities/files in /usr/sbin /var/ multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files account/ system accounting files acct execution accounting file; see acct(5) at/ timed command scheduling files; see at(1) backups/ miscellaneous backup files, largely of files found in /etc chroot/ home directories of applications which are run in a chroot(8) ``cage''. crash/ system crash dumps; see savecore(8) cron/ scheduled commands configuration files; see cron(8) db/ miscellaneous automatically generated system- specific database files, and persistent files used in the maintenance of third party software. pkg default location for metadata related to third party software packages. See pkg_add(1) for more details of the NetBSD Packages Collection, or pkgsrc. games/ miscellaneous game status and log files heimdal/ Kerberos 5 KDC database; see kdc(8) log/ miscellaneous system log files amd.* amd(8) logs daily.out output of the last run of the /etc/daily script ftp.* ftp(1) logs kerberos.* kerberos(8) logs lastlog system last time logged in log; see utmp(5) lpd-errs.* printer daemon error logs; see lpd(8) maillog.* sendmail(1) log files messages.* general system information log monthly.out output of the last run of the /etc/monthly script secure sensitive security information log sendmail.st sendmail(1) statistics timed.* timed(8) logs weekly.out output of the last run of the /etc/weekly script wtmp login/logout log; see utmp(5) mail/ user system mailboxes msgs/ system messages; see msgs(1) preserve/ temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death of ex(1) or vi(1) quotas/ filesystem quota information run/ system information files, rebuilt after each reboot utmp database of current users; see utmp(5) rwho/ rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1) spool/ miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories ftp/ commonly ``~ftp'', the anonymous ftp root directory; see ftpd(8) mqueue/ sendmail mail queue; see sendmail(1) news/ Network news archival and spooling directories output/ printer spooling directories postfix/ postfix mail queue; see postfix(1) tmp/ temporary files that are not discarded between system reboots vi.recover/ recovery directory for new vi(1) yp/ Databases and configuration for the NIS (YP) system; see nis(8). SEE ALSO apropos(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), paths(3) HISTORY A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. NetBSD 7.1.2 May 25, 2015 NetBSD 7.1.2